PREPARED BY: Ankit Balyan U06CE065 B.Tech. IV Civil Engg.

GUIDED BY: Mrs. Anjali Khambete Associate Professor CED, SVNIT, Surat

‡ Storm water is a term used to describe water that

originates during precipitation events. It may also be used to apply to water that originates with snowmelt or runoff water from overwatering that enters the storm water system. ‡ A storm drainage system is a network of structures, channels and underground pipes that carry storm water (rain water) to ponds, lakes, streams and rivers. The network consists of both public and private systems.

‡ A storm drain is designed to drain excess rain and ground water

from paved streets, parking lots, sidewalks, and roofs. They are fed by street gutters on most motorways, freeways and other busy roads, as well as towns in areas which experience heavy rainfall, flooding and coastal towns which experience regular storms.

‡ Because impervious surfaces do

not allow rain to infiltrate into the ground, , more runoff is generated than in the undeveloped condition. This additional runoff can erode watercourses (streams and rivers) as well as cause flooding when the storm water collection system is overwhelmed by the additional flow.
‡ When it rains or there is irrigation, water runs off and ultimately makes its

way to a river, lake, or the ocean. While there is some attenuation of these pollutants before entering the receiving waters, the quantity of human activity results in large enough quantities of pollutants to impair these receiving waters. ‡ Polluted runoff from roads and highways is the largest source of water pollution in coastal areas today.

‡ Water running off impervious surfaces tends to pick

up gasoline, motor oil, heavy metals, trash and other pollutants from roadways and parking lots, as well as fertilizers and pesticides from lawns. ‡ Roads and parking lots are major sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are created as combustion byproducts of gasoline and other fossil fuels, as well as of the heavy metals nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead. ‡ Roof runoff contributes high levels of synthetic organic compounds and zinc (from galvanized gutters). Fertilizer use on residential lawns, parks and golf courses is a significant source of nitrates and phosphorus.

‡ A 2008 report by the United States National Research

Council identified urban runoff as a leading source of water quality problems. ‡ The runoff also increases temperatures in streams, harming fish and other organisms. A sudden burst of runoff from a rainstorm can cause a fish-killing shock of hot water. Also, road salt used to melt snow on sidewalks and roadways can contaminate streams and groundwater aquifers. ‡ When the area is urbanized, urban runoff then creates an unnatural year-round flow that hurts the vegetation, wildlife and riverbed of the waterway. ‡ As an example, on many Southern California beaches at the mouth of a waterway, urban runoff carries trash, pollutants, excessive silt, and other wastes, and can pose moderate to severe health hazards.

Storm water management is a fundamental consideration in the planning and design of urban development. This includes three steps:‡ SITE ANALYSIS - The site s topography will have a significant impact on the layout design. The layout of the development must be configured so as to allow excess storm water to be gravity-drained to a drainage system. ‡ ADJOINING PROPERTIES - One of the basic principles of storm water management is to avoid adverse storm water impacts on other properties. Careful consideration must be given to controlling surface runoff and subsoil drainage to adjoining properties. ‡ PUBLIC SAFETY - It is essential that the design of overland flow paths, on-site detention storages and other stormwater management measures meet relevant safety criteria for pedestrians, vehicles and property damage.

‡ The most widely used method for estimating peak storm-water

runoff is called the rational-formula method. ‡ This formula assumes that:1) rate of storm-water run-off from an area is a direct function of the average rainfall rate 2) the average frequency of occurrence of the peak runoff equals the average frequency of occurrence of the rainfall rate 3) quantity of storm water lost due to evaporation, infiltration, and surface depressions remains constant throughout the rainfall.

The peak value of the flow rate Q of storm-water runoff is estimated using the following equation:-

Where C = coefficient of runoff I = rainfall rate for a specified rainfall duration and frequency of occurrence, in/h (cm/h) A = tributary area to the inlet or drain, acres (m2)

A given site may have areas with different coefficients of runoff all draining to a common point. It is desirable to use a single coefficient of runoff for the entire area. Such a dimensionless coefficient (termed a weighted coefficient of runoff) Cw , can be calculated using

where A1, A2, and An are the area in acres (m2), and C1 , C2 , and Cn are the corresponding coefficients of runoff of the individual tributary areas to a common point. A weighted coefficient of runoff must be calculated for each segment of the stormwater drainage system.

The coefficient of runoff is a coefficient which accounts for storm-water losses attributed to evaporation, infiltration, and surface depressions. Its value depends on the surface in contact with the storm water.

Surat is one of the 63 cities included in the JNNURM scheme. Apart from other infrastructure development projects, this scheme also includes the improvisation of the storm water disposal system of Surat.

2006 275 kms 2012 491 kms

Key features of the project:‡ Laying of new storm water lines in Vesu, Pal Palanpore and the new eastern areas ‡ Total Project Cost = Rs 450 crores ‡ Current projects are expected to be completed by December 2010 while the entire project is likely to be over by 2012 ‡ Replacing of secondary drain pipes with 1400mm diameter pipes ‡ Laying of storm water drains along all smaller side roads which previous did not have these drains

The project aims to achieve following goals: ‡ There will be protection of mankind and other living organisms from flooding ‡ There will be protection of major equipments and infrastructure from being getting damaged due to floods. ‡ To protect loss of man hours, business hours of working people and increase productivity, thereby enhancing economic growth in the area. ‡ To quickly remove the stagnant water as soon as possible so that epidemic can be avoided and make the pavement free to resume traffic

‡ The Mithi River flows through

the city of Mumbai and forms a principal channel to discharge storm water and sewage. ‡ The Storm Water Drainage (SWD) system of Mumbai comprises a hierarchical network of roadside surface drains , underground drains and laterals , major and minor channels and 186 outfalls. ‡ There are 29 out-falls in western suburbs draining directly into sea while 14 drain into Mithi river

location of the Mithi river is an important administrative boundary that divides the City and the Suburbs. Flooding in the river has direct or indirect implications for disrupting traffic on five transport corridors; Central Railway Main Line, Central Railway Harbor Line, Western Railway Line, Western Express Highway, and Eastern Express Highway. ‡ The intensity of flooding following the unprecedented rainfall of 944 mm recorded at Santa Cruz airport on 26th July 2005 led to the submergence of large areas adjoining the Mithi river to an alarming extent which caused disruption of the abovementioned corridors of railways and surface transport. ‡ Following the flooding in 2005, the MMRDA asked the CWPRS, Pune was to undertake hydrological study, whose report was submitted in January 2006.

‡ The

In order to mitigate floods, following remedial measures are recommended by CWPRS, Pune:(a) Bandra Kurla Complex (BKC) area:1. Providing a dredged channel of 60 m width from -2 m (with respect to Mean Sea Level or MSL) contour in the sea to Mahim Causeway bed level (dredged to -1 m) and removing existing rock over-crops. 2. Widening of the waterway from Mahim Causeway to Dharavi Bridge to 100 m. 3. Widening of the bed width from the existing 175 m to 200 m between Dharavi Bridge and CST Bridge. 4. Widening of Vakola Nalla from the earlier designed width of 40 m to 60 m. 5. Deepening of bed level at Mahim Causeway to -1 m and at CST Bridge to +0.67 m.

(b) Upstream of BKC area:-

1. Widening of existing bed from CST Bridge to MV Road to 100 m. 2. Widening of existing bed from MV Road to Jogeshwari Vikhroli Link Road to 60 m 3. Widening of existing bed from Jogeshwari Vikhroli Link Road to Morarji Nagar to 40 m. 4. Deepening of existing bed levels: CST Bridge (Ch. 5.88 km) from +2 m to 0.67 m Air India Colony (Ch. 7.05 km) from +3.11 m to +1.0 m Airport (Ch. 9.38 km) from +6.15 m to +4 m MV Road (Ch. 10.47 km) from +8.12 m to +6.35 m Aarey Dairy Foot Over Bridge (Ch. 12.18 km) from +12.75 m to +10 m Jogeshwari-Vikhroli (Ch. 14 km) from +20.25 m to +18 m

Additional Recommendations:‡ Moderating the river course by replacing existing sharp bends with longer gentler bends. ‡ Providing Non-return valves for cross drains. ‡ Providing Regular maintenance and dredging. ‡ Providing smooth transition for waterways near bridges.

Action taken by the recommendations :-

City

Administration

on

these

The City Administration acting swiftly on recommendations accepted most of them and directed Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) and Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) to take the necessary action. The work was divided in two parts:‡ The 11.84 km upstream stretch from Vihar Lake to CST Bridge was given to MCGM ‡ The critical downstream part of the remaining 6 km was undertaken by MMRDA The downstream stretch was further divided into two phases by MMRDA: 1) Phase 1: It involves de-silting and widening of the stretch. The time frame decided for this was 1 March 2006 to 30 June 2006 and is now finished. The amount sanctioned for the work was Rs. 30 crores. 2) Phase 2: From 1 Oct 2006 to 30 June 2007 with a budget of Rs. 100 crores. It involved dredging, widening, construction of retaining wall, beautification and building of service roads.

‡ Surat has always faced the problem of flooding over the period

of time with the worst floods ever coming in 2006. A good storm disposal system has to be put in place to match the rapid strides in urban development that Surat has made over the years. The attention has shifted to this very critical area and the work of rebuilding it has already begun. ‡ A good and efficient storm water drainage system is beneficial is more ways than one. 
It not only saves a lot of life and property on the day of the floods but

also prevents epidemics caused due to the long standing stagnant water which becomes a breeding ground for mosquitoes and insects.  Surat lost a lot of money in the 2006 floods, a better and more efficient storm water drainage system can save another such situation from arising in the future.

1) Stanley W. Trimble (2007) Encyclopedia of Water Science, CRC Press, 1586 pages ISBN 0849396271 2) Hogan C. Michael, "Phaistos Fieldnotes." The Modern Antiquarian (2007) 3) Schueler, Thomas R. "The Importance of Imperviousness." Reprinted in The Practice of Watershed Protection, 2000. Center for Watershed Protection. Ellicott City, MD. 4.) Peter Coombes, Water Sensitive urban design in the Sydney Region, Lower Hunter and Central Coast Regional Environmental Management Strategy, 2002 5) 1-D Mathematical Model and Desk Studies for mitigating floods of MIthi River of Mumbai , Technical Report No. 4297, CWPRS, Pune, January 2006. 6) Gupta, Kapil, Urban Flooding: Vulnerability, Preparedness and Mitigation 944 mm Mumbai 26/07/2005 event , Presentation, International Centre for Excellence in Water Resources Management, Adelaide, 29 May 2006. 7) Hiedeman L. David,PE,CIPE, Storm-Water Drainage Systems in Practical Plumbing Engineering, American Society of Plumbing Engineers, 1998 8) Surat Municipal Corporation, Drainage Department, Surat 9) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stormwater

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