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TOPIC 7

BASIC AIR POLLUTION/


DISPERSION MODELLING

Point Source Gaussian Plume


Model

Point Source Gaussian Plume


Model

Point Source Gaussian Plume


Model
Model Structure and Assumptions

pollutants released from a virtual point


source
advective transport by wind
dispersive transport (spreading) follows
normal (Gaussian) distribution away from
trajectory
constant emission rate
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Point Source Gaussian Plume


Model
Model Structure and Assumptions (cont)

wind speed constant with time and elevation


pollutant is conservative (no reaction)
pollutant is reflected by ground
terrain is flat and unobstructed
uniform atmospheric stability

Point Source Gaussian Plume


Model

x, y,0, H

E
exp
s y s z u

1 y

2 s y

1
H
exp

s

2

Where = downwind concentration at


ground level (g/m3)
E = emission rate of pollutant (g/s)
sy,sz = plume standard deviations (m)
u = wind speed (m/s)
x, y, z, H = distances (m)
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Point Source Gaussian Plume


Model Effective Stack Height
H h H
where
H = Effective stack height (m)
h = height of physical stack (m)
H = plume rise (m)

Point Source Gaussian Plume


Model Effective Stack Height

Hollands formula

Ts Ta
vs
2
H 1.5 2.68 10 P
u
Ta

where vs = stack velocity (m/s)


d = stack diameter (m)
u = wind speed (m)
P = pressure (kPa)
Ts = stack temperature (K)
Ta = air temperature (K)
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Point Source Gaussian Plume


Model Stability Categories

Point Source Gaussian Plume


Model Horizontal Dispersion

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Point Source Gaussian Plume


Model Vertical Dispersion

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Point Source Gaussian Plume


Model Wind Speed Correction

Unless the wind speed at the virtual stack height


is known, it must be estimated from the ground
wind speed

z2

u2 u1
z1

where ux = wind speed at


elevation zx
p = empirical constant

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Example 1
A stack in an urban area is emitting 80 g/s

of NO. It has an effective stack height of


100 m. The wind speed is 4 m/s at 10 m.
It is a clear summer day with the sun
nearly overhead. Estimate the ground
level concentration at a) 2 km downwind
on the centerline and b) 2 km downwind,
0.1 km off the centerline.
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Example
1.

Determine stability class


Assume wind speed is 4 km at ground
surface. Description suggests strong
solar radiation.
Stability class B

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Example
2.

Estimate the wind speed at the effective stack


height
Note: effective stack height given no need to
calculate using Hollands formula

z2

u2 u1
z1

100
4

10

0.15

5.65 m/s
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Example
3.

Determine y and z
y = 290
z = 220

220
290

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Example
4.

Determine concentration using Eq 11-12


a.

x = 2000, y = 0

80
1 0
1 100
C (2000,0)
exp
exp

(290)(220)(5.6)
2 290
2 220
2

C (2000,0) 6.43 10 5 g/m3 64.3 g/m3

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Example
x = 2000, y = 0.1 km = 100 m

80
1
C (2000,100)
exp
(290)(220)(5.6)
2

100
1 100
exp

290
2 220
2

C(2000,100) = 6.06 X

g./m3
= 60.6 g/m3

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Stack height
Tall stacks are no longer considered as

an acceptable alternative for controlling


emissions from electric power generating
plants.

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Stack height

Recently this practice has become under attack on the basis that
discharge from the tall stack is more likely to result in long range
transport with associated problems of interregional and international
transport, fumigation and acid deposition.

It is argued that, to prevent these problems, pollutants must be


removed from the effluent gases so that, even if plume are
transported for long distances, they will not cause harm when their
constituent eventually reached ground level

If such clean-up of the emission takes place, the need for such tall
stacks disappeared. Despite these arguments, the taller the stacks,
the better the closer-in receptor surrounding the source are
protected from its effluents.

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Stack height

The ability of tall stack to inject its plume into the upper air and
disperse its pollutants widely depends upon prevalent
meteorological conditions. Some conditions aid dispersion; others
retard it. Since these conditions are measurable and predictable,
intermittent and supplementary control system (ICS/SCS) have
been developed to utilize these released from the stack before
ground level limits exceeded.

This leads to the same objections to (ICS/SCS) as were noted


above to the use of tall stacks without a high level of pollutant
removal before emission. Therefore, here again it is argued that if a
high level of cleanup is used, the need to project the effluent into the
upper air is reduced and the benefits of an operating ICS/SCS
(which is costly) in lieu of installing more efficient pollutant removal
equipment disappear.

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