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Adhoc and Sensor Networks

Year :2012-2013
IV Year B.Tech (CSE) II Sem
Unit-I PPT Slides
Text Books:
1. Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Theory and Applications, Carlos Corderio
Dharma P.Aggarwal, World Scientific Publications, March 2006, ISBN 981
- 256-681-3
2.Wireless Sensor Networks: An Information Processing Approach, Feng
Zhao, Leonidas Guibas, Elsevier Science, ISBN 978-1-55860-914-3
( Morgan Kauffman)

Table of Contents
Chapters:
1. Introduction
2. Routing in Ad hoc Networks
3. Broadcasting, Multicasting and Geocasting
4. Wireless LANs
5. Wireless PANs
6. Directional Antenna Systems
7. TCP over Ad Hoc Networks
8. Wireless Sensor Networks
9. Data Retrieval in Sensor Networks
10. Security
11. Integrating MANETs, WLANs and Cellular
Networks

Chapter 1: Introduction

Introduction
The Communication Puzzle
Applications of MANETs
Challenges

Scalability
Quality of Service
Client-Server Model Shift
Security
Interoperation with the Internet
Energy Conservation
Node (MH) Cooperation
Interoperation

Book Organization
Conclusions and Future Directions
Homework Questions/Simulation Projects
References

A Mobile Ad Hoc Network


(MANET)
MH2
MH2
MH4

Asymmetric link

MH3

MH5
MH7

Symmetric link
MH1

MH6

Characteristics of a MANET

An autonomous system of nodes (Mobile Hosts:


MHs) connected by wireless links
Same channel used by all nodes
Lack of fixed infrastructure
Absence of centralized authority
Peer-to-peer connectivity
Multi-hop forwarding to ensure network
connectivity
Topology may change dynamically
Random Multi-hop Graph
Energy-constrained
Bandwidth-constrained, variable capacity links

Characteristi
c

Important
characteristics of a
DescriptionMANET

Dynamic
Topologies

Nodes are free to move arbitrarily with different


speeds; thus, the network topology may change
randomly and at unpredictable times.

Energyconstrained
Operation

Some or all of the nodes in an ad hoc network


may rely on batteries or other exhaustible means
for their energy. For these nodes, the most
important system design optimization criteria
may be energy conservation.

Limited
Bandwidth

Wireless links continue to have significantly


lower capacity than infrastructured networks. In
addition, the realized throughput of wireless
communications after accounting for the effects
of multiple access, fading, noise, and
interference conditions, etc., is often much less
than a radios maximum transmission rate.

Security
Threats

Mobile wireless networks are generally more


prone to physical security threats than fixedcable nets. The increased possibility of
eavesdropping, spoofing, and minimization of

The envisioned
communication puzzle
of 4G and beyond

The scope of various wireless


technologies

Applications of MANETs

Collaborative Work

Crisis-management Applications

Collaborative computing might be important outside office


environments
Natural disasters with entire communications infrastructure
in disarray
Restoring communications quickly is essential
Infrastructure could be set up in hours instead of
days/weeks

Personal Area Networking

Short-range, localized network of nodes associated with a


person
Nodes could be attached to someones cell phone, pulse
watch, belt, etc.
Bluetooth is an example
Eliminates need of wires between devices such as printers,
cell phones, PDAs, laptop computers, headsets, etc.
IEEE 802.15 standard working group

Scalability

Future Challenges
in Ad hoc and
Sensor Networks

Short-range Throughput per node decreasesN


at a rate 1/
, where N is the
number of nodes
This cannot be fixed except by physical layer improvements, such as
directional antennas

Quality of service

Need to provide best-effort service only for Voice, live video and file transfer

Client server model shift


There is no server, but demand for basic services still exists.
Address allocation, name resolution, authentication and service location are
just examples of very basic services which are needed

Security

Lack of any centralized network management or certification authority


Networks are particularly prone to malicious behavior

Interoperation with the Internet


Networks require some Internet connection
Interface between the two are very different

Energy conservation

Lifetime of a single battery and the whole network.

Node cooperation

Why anyone should relay other peoples data

Interoperation

What happens when two autonomous ad hoc networks move into same area

Book outline
Chapter 2: Unicast routing over ad hoc networks
Chapter 3: Multicasting, Broadcasting and

geocasting in ad hoc networks


Chapters 4 and 5: Most widely used MAC and
physical layers for ad hoc networks
Chapter 6: Use of directional antenna for
increasing capacity, connectivity, and covertness of
ad hoc networks
Chapter 7: The issue of TCP (Transmission Control
Protocol) over ad hoc networks
Chapter 8: Introduction to sensor networks
Chapter 9: Data retrieval in sensor networks
Chapter 10: Security in ad hoc networks
Chapter 11: Integration of heterogeneous wireless
technologies in the context of ad hoc and sensor
networks

Book Organization
Application

Transport

Network
LLC

Data
MAC Link

Physical

All chapters

Chapters 7,
9 and 11
Chapters 2, 3, 6,
8, 9, 10, and 11
Chapters 4, 5, 6,
8, 9, and 11
Chapters 4,
5, 6, and 11