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SHORT AND LONG TERM EFFECTS

AND
WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS

A pharmaceutical preparation or a naturally


occurring substance used primarily to bring
about a change in the existing process or
state (physiological, psychological or
biochemical) can be called a drug

Drug use
Intake of drugs to
treat an illness
prevent a disease
improve health condition
Drug abuse
Intake of drugs for reasons other than
medical in a manner that affects
physical or mental functioning

Drug addiction
Tolerance
Psychological dependence
Physical dependence
Withdrawal symptoms

CLASSIFICATION OF
ADDICTIVE DRUGS

Narcotic analgesics
Cannabis
Stimulants
Depressants
Hallucinogens
Volatile solvents
Other drugs of abuse

NARCOTIC ANALGESICS
Pain killing or pain relieving drugs with opium like
effects
Natural sources : Opium
morphine
codeine
Semi synthetic : Heroin (brown sugar)
Synthetic : Buprenorphine (tidigesic)
Methadone
Pentazocine

Mode of intake :
Opium oral, inhalation
Morphine injection
Codeine oral (tablets and cough syrups)
Heroin injection, inhalation, chasing
Buprenorphine oral, injection

SHORT - TERM EFFECTS OF


NARCOTIC ANALGESICS
Euphoria
Thought process impairment, drowsiness, apathy
Freedom from pain
Overdose of heroin can cause convulsions, coma
and death

LONG-TERM EFFECTS

Mood instability
Reduced libido
Constipation
Respiratory impairments
Physical deterioration

Infections like serum hepatitis and HIV can


occur among IV users
In female abusers, menstrual irregularity and
fetal addiction / abnormality

Tolerance and dependence develop


Withdrawal symptoms
Feeling of unpleasantness
Severe pain
Diarrhea
Dilation of pupils
Insomnia
Hallucinations

STIMULANTS
Drugs which excite or speed up the central
nervous system
Amphetamines
Cocaine

SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF
STIMULANTS
A heightened feeling of well being
A sense of super-abundant energy
Increased motor and speech activity
Suppression of appetite
Increased wakefulness

LONG-TERM EFFECTS

Chronic sleep problem


Poor appetite
Rapid and irregular heart beat
Mood swings
`Amphetamine psychosis may occur

Tolerance and dependence develop

Withdrawal symptoms

No major physiological disruptions


Extreme fatigue
Disturbed sleep
Voracious appetite
Moderate to severe depression

DEPRESSANTS
Drugs which depress or slow down the
functions of the central nervous system
Sedative-hypnotics
Barbiturates
Benzodiazepines
Alcohol

SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF
DEPRESSANTS
Relief from anxiety and tension
Euphoria
Lowering of inhibitions
Poor motor coordination
Impaired concentration and judgement
Slurred speech and blurred vision
Sedation, sleep with larger doses

LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF
DEPRESSANTS
Depression

Chronic fatigue
Respiratory impairments
Impaired sexual function
Decreased attention span
Poor memory and judgement
Chronic sleep problems

Tolerance and dependence


Tolerance does not develop uniformly
Cross tolerance can develop
Physical and psychological dependence
develops
Withdrawal symptoms
Insomnia
Weakness and nausea
Hallucinations
Convulsions
Delirium tremens

HALLUCINOGENS
Hallucinogens are drugs which affect
perception, emotions and mental processes
LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide)
PCP (Phencyclidine)
Mescaline
Psilocybin

SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF
HALLUCINOGENS
Alterations of mood
Distortion of the sense of direction, distance and
time
Pseudo hallucinations
Synesthesia melding of two sensory modalities
Feelings of depersonalisation

LONG-TERM EFFECTS
Flash back or spontaneous recurrence of on
LSD experience can occur
Amotivational syndrome
LSD precipitated psychosis

Tolerance and dependence


Tolerance develops rapidly
Withdrawal symptoms are not reported

CANNABIS

Ganja / Marijuana
Hashish / Charas
Hashish oil
Bhang

Common mode of intake :


Smoking

SHORT TERM EFFECTS


Mild euphoria
Lowering of inhibitions
Dilation of blood vessels
Increased auditory and visual acuity
Sense of smell, touch and taste are often
enhanced
Altered sense of time perception
Impaired short-term memory
Impairment of ability to perform complex motor
tasks

LONG-TERM EFFECTS
Decreased cognitive ability
Amotivational syndrome
Psychosis
Respiratory problems
Sterility / impotence
In women abusers, fetal damage can occur

Tolerance and psychological


dependence develop
Withdrawal symptoms
Sleep disturbances
Loss of appetite, irritability
Tremors
Depression or psychotic symptoms may
become prominent

VOLATILE SOLVENTS

Volatile hydrocarbons
Petroleum derivatives

SHORT-TERM EFFECTS
Euphoria
Clouded thinking
Slurred speech
Staggering gait
Hallucinations
Sudden death

LONG-TERM EFFECTS
Psychosis
Permanent brain damage
Liver, kidney and heart damage

OTHER DRUGS OF ABUSE


Muscle relaxants
Analgesics
Anti-histamines
Anti-emetics
Anti-depressants / anti-psychotics

DAMAGE DUE TO ADDICTION


Physical deterioration
Psychiatric problems
Intellectual impairment
Personality deterioration
Safety risks accidents and high risk behaviour
Legal risks