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Mechanical Design of

Machine
Elements/Components

Gandingan
( Coupling )

Gandingan
Tujuan:

Menyambung 2 aci hujung ke


hujung.

Sambungan boleh dilakukan dalam


tiga keadaan kegunaan:
1. paksi aci-aci adalah
sepaksi(collinear)
2. paksi aci-aci adalah
bersilang(intersect)
3. paksi aci-aci adalah
selari(parallel) tetapi tidak
sepaksi

Menyambung aci mesin pemacu


kepada aci mesin dipacu.
Tiga keadaan penjajaran sambungan aci

Jenis-jenis Gandingan
Gandingan Tegar (Rigid Couplings)~provide a connection between two
perfectly aligned shafts.
Frequently in use in industry ~ Steel, Copper, Paper, Petro-chemical,
Food, Wastewater, Transportation and also for applications ~ Pumps;
Compressors; Fans; Conveyors; anywhere motors, engines, and
turbines are used
cth: gandingan bebibir(flanged coupling), clamped coupling,
tapered-sleeve coupling.
Gandingan Mudah-Lentur (Flexible Coupling)
cth: rubber element Flexible Coupling, Falk Flexible
Coupling, roller chain Coupling, gear type Coupling, Oldham
Coupling, Universal Joints (~ Hookes joint and Constant
velocity Universal Joints ).

Jenis-jenis Gandingan

Rigid

Coupling

Locks

the shaft together


Alowing no relative motion between them
No provision for misalignment between them
Does not reduce shock or vibration across it from one shaft
to the other
suitable for low speeds, accurately aligned shafts

Flexible

Coupling

Take

care of a small amount of unintentional misalignment


Allow radial, angular and axial misalignment
Slight misalignment and vibration absorbed by coupling
Provide for end float (axial movement of a shaft)

Flanged Rigid Coupling


Keyed Coupling
widely used
coupling halves attached to shaft ends by keys
used standard keys

key

bolt

Compression coupling
split double cone that does not move axially

Design consideration for flanged coupling


1.

the torque capacity of the key or wedged friction


connection with the shaft

2.

the strength of the relatively thin web portions


that are drilled to accommodate the bolts

3.

the strength of the bolts.

Db

For this course only item 1 and 3 will be discuss.

flange

shaft

Basic formula of shear stress


analysis of bolts in coupling

F
F
2T

2
As N b (d / 4) Db N b (d 2 / 4)
S sy
8K s P

2
Db N b (d ) N
To find the torque that can be transmited

Db
Nb
2
Db
d 2 Db
T As
Nb

Nb
2
4
2
d 2 Db
T
Nb
8
T F r Nb F

To find the required bolts diameter

8T
Db N b d

where

Ks P
T

Where d =Ssy= 0.577Sy/N or d = all


all = 0.18Su or 0.3Syp

(which is lower/small)
Nb= number of bolts
Db= bolt circle diameter
= 2n/60

rad/second

P = Power, kW or hp
n = rpm
Ks= service factor for
machinery

Table of Service Factors for Machinery

Ks = c1 + c2

Driving machines

c1

Electric motors

0.5

turbomachinery

0.75

Reciprocating engines:

1.5 2.8

4-cylinder
6-cylinder

1-2

Driven machines

c2

Machine tools

Rolling mills

1.6 -2

blowers

1.5

Textile machinery

1.6 2.2

Rotary pumps, compressors

1.5

Rciprocating pumps, compressors

2.2 3.2

Paper mills

1.8 -3

Mixing machines

1.8 -3

Wood processing machines

2-3

Electric generators

1.1 1.3

hoists

1.5

Contoh: An electric motor is used to drive a blower at 600rpm. The shaft of


the motor is connected to the shaft of the blower by flange coupling.
Calculate the rated power of the flanged keyed coupling assembly as
shown. Given that there are 6 bolts of diameter 15mm with allowable
shear strength Sall 210MPa. The bolts circle diameter is Db = 150mm.
Area in shear for one bolt is

1
As (15mm) 2 176.7 mm 2
4
Allowable force for one bolt is

F As As S all

F 176.7 mm 2 x 291MPa
F 51.4kN
The torque that can be
transmited by six bolts which
are at a 75mm distance from
the central axis is

T F r (51.4kN ) (0.075m) 6
T 23kN .m

Therefore the
rated power is

T T 2n

Ks
60 K s

2 23 103 N .m 600
P
723kW
60 sec ond 0.5 1.5

A rigid flange coupling used 4 bolts. The bolts circle diameter is 125mm. If
the bolt has an ultimate tensile strength of 550MPa and a yield point in
tension of 345MPa, determine the bolts size if it is to transmit a torque of
2kN.m
all = 0.18Su = 0.18(550MPa) = 99MPa
or all = 0.3Syp= 0.3(345MPa) = 103.5MPa
Use all= 99MPa ; T = 2kN.m ; Nb= 4

8T
8(2 103 N )

Db N b d
(0.125m)(4)(99 106 N / m 2 )

d 0.0101m 10.1mm
Hence from Table 8-1, use M12 bolts.