Networking Basics


‡Network Communication

‡OSI Reference Model


What is Networking?

Networking is the Sharing of information and services . Networking is possible when individuals or groups have information or abilities that they wish to share with others . Computer Networking provides the communication tools to allow computers to SHARE information and abilities . eg., Postal Services , Courier Services , Computer Networks

Why Use Networks? 

Network: group of computers and other devices that are
connected by some type of transmission media 

Advantages of using networks over standalone computers:  Networks enable multiple users to share the network¶s
resources (devices and data) 

Networks allow you to manage, or administer, resources
on multiple computers from a central location


Suppose two individuals have some ideas to share



For Communication THREE essentials factors required At least TWO Individuals who have something to share Pathway for connecting each other Rules for Communication
A Russian & A French have ideas to share

Suppose Telephone May be English


Three basic elements of Computer Network

Something to Share

Network Services

A Pathway for Communication

Transmission Media

Rules for Communication




Sharing of Resources in Computer Network

In a Computer Network ,sharing may be «.  Hard-disk  Printer  Modem


A signal is an electric quantity (voltage or current or field strength) whose modulation represents coded information about the source from which it comes.  A detectable impulse by which information is communicated through electronic or optical means or over wire, cable, microwave, laser beams, etc.  A signal is an electric quantity typically composed of voltage and current traveling on a conductor (wire) to convey information, data, or commands; has two main characteristics: namely, amplitude and time base


A uniform set of rules that enable two devices to connect and transmit data to one another. Protocols determine how data are transmitted between computing devices and over networks.  In computing, a protocol is a convention or standard that controls or enables the connection, communication, and data transfer between two computing endpoints. Protocols may be implemented by hardware, software, or a combination of the two. At the lowest level, a protocol defines a hardware connection.

Complexity of a Protocol 
In some cases, a protocol is simply a code²such as a pattern of electrical voltages²that defines the binary value of a bit of data: 0 or 1.  More complicated networking protocols can provide a variety of services, including the following:       
Packet acknowledgment Segmentation Flow control Error detection Error correction Data compression Data encryption


Protocol Interaction 
The protocols operating at the various OSI layers are often referred to as a protocol stack. 

The networking protocols running on a computer form a layered stack, with each protocol providing services to the protocol operating at the layer above or below it, depending on the direction of data flow.


Types of Computer Network
Classified on Size , Distance covered or Structure

‡LAN - Local Area Network: confined to a relatively small space, such as a building or an office

‡MAN - Metropolitan Area Network: larger than a LAN; connects clients and servers from multiple buildings

‡WAN - Wide Area Network: connects two or more geographically distinct LANs or MANs


1. 2.

Maximum distance < = 10 Kms Normally one type of Media Transmission


Normally within a

Building or Campus


Layout of LAN

Within a


or Campus



‡Maximum Distance > 10 Kms < = 100 Kms

‡Transmission Media may be more than one type

‡Within a city


Layout of
Building A

Building B

Within a City

Network A

MAN Link Network B



Inter City or Inter Country


Layout of
WAN Link City A


City B



Case Study - I

MoneyMaker is a bank having its registered office at Delhi. It has branches at Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad and Bangalore. The operating departments in the bank are Finance, Insurance, Loan, IT, Marketing, Customer Service and HR. MoneyMaker bank uses LAN as their computer network for each department. All the branches of the bank from different cities are connected through WAN. The bank is expanding and decided to open its branches at different locations in the city.



Determine which type of network to be used within a city


Suggested Solution

Use LAN computer network for each department in the new branch. MAN can be used for connecting the different branches of the bank within the city


Transmission Basics 

In data networking, transmit means to issue signals to the network medium 

Transmission refers to either the process of transmitting or the progress of signals after they have been transmitted


Analog and Digital Signals 
Information transmitted via analog or digital signals  Signal strength proportional to voltage 

In analog signals, voltage varies continuously and appears
as a wavy line when graphed over time 

Wave¶s amplitude is a measure of its strength  Frequency: number of times wave¶s amplitude cycles
from starting point, through highest amplitude and lowest amplitude, back to starting point over a fixed period of time 

Measured in Hz

Analog and Digital Signals (continued) 

Wavelength: distance between corresponding points on a
wave¶s cycle 

Phase: progress of a wave over time in relationship to a
fixed point 

Analog transmission susceptible to transmission flaws such
as noise 

Digital signals composed of pulses of precise, positive
voltages and zero voltages 

Positive voltage represents 1  Zero voltage represents 0


Analog and Digital Signals (continued) 

Binary system: uses 1s and 0s to represent information  Easy to convert between binary and decimal  Bit: a single binary signal  Byte: 8 bits  Typically represents one piece of information  Overhead: describes non-data information that must
accompany data for a signal to be properly routed and interpreted


Data Modulation

Figure : A carrier wave modified through frequency modulation

Transmission Direction: Simplex, Half-Duplex, and Duplex 

Simplex transmission: signals may travel in only one direction  Half-duplex transmission: signals may travel in both directions over a medium  Only one direction at a time  Full-duplex or duplex: signals free to travel in both directions over a medium simultaneously  Used on data networks  Channel: distinct communication path between nodes  May be separated logically or physically


Simplex Communication 

A data processing device or protocol capable of transmitting or receiving but not both. 

A radio technology that allows only one-way communication. The FM radio in your car, or your TV set, could be viewed as simplex devices.


Half Duplex Commnuication 
A communications channel allowing alternating transmission
in two directions, but not in both directions simultaneously. 

Alternating the transmission and reception of information
between users. Sometimes also referred to as "Ping-Pong" operation. 

This is the basic mode of operation of most TDD and TDMA
systems, where transmission and reception are separate in time.


Full-Duplex Communications 

Operating a channel in one direction only with no ability to operate in the other direction. 

An asynchronous communications protocol allowing a communications channel to send and receive data at the same time. For example, a telephone is a full-duplex device because both parties can talk at once.


Transmission Direction: Multiplexing 
Multiplexing: transmission form allowing multiple signals to
travel simultaneously over one medium 

Channel logically separated into sub channels 

Multiplexer (mux): combines multiple signals  Sending end of channel 

Demultiplexer (demux): separates combined signals and
regenerates them in original form 

Receiving end of channel


Relationships Between Nodes

Figure : Point-to-point versus broadcast transmission

Throughput and Bandwidth 

Throughput: measure of amount of data transmitted during given time period 

Bandwidth: difference between highest and lowest frequencies that a medium can transmit


Baseband and Broadband 

Baseband: digital signals sent through direct current (DC)
pulses applied to a wire 

Requires exclusive use of wire¶s capacity  Baseband systems can transmit one signal at a time  Ethernet 

Broadband: signals modulated as radiofrequency (RF)
analog waves that use different frequency ranges 

Does not encode information as digital pulses


Baseband Communication 

Baseband is the name given to a transmission method in which the entire bandwidth (the rate at which information travels through a network connection) is used to transmit just one signal.  Baseband is a cheaper method than broadband and is typically used for shorter distances of transmission.  A prime signal such as composite video, component video and audio having its own path and that is not modulated onto a carrier signal or combined with other signals on a path.  For instance, the voice baseband extends from 300 Hz3400Hz.


Broadband Communication 

Broadband comes from the words "broad bandwidth" and is used to describe a high-capacity, two-way link between an end user and access network suppliers capable of supporting full-motion, interactive video applications. 

A transmission medium capable of supporting a wide range of frequencies, typically from audio up to video frequencies. It can carry multiple signals by dividing the total capacity of the medium into multiple, independent bandwidth channels, where each channel operates only on a specific range of frequencies.


Segments and Backbones 

The term segment is sometimes used synonymously with LAN or network to refer to any collection of networked computers, but in this context it refers to a LAN composed of user workstations and other end-user devices, such as printers. 

The backbone exists primarily as a conduit that enables the segments to communicate with each other. One common configuration for an office building with multiple floors calls for a horizontal segment connecting all of the workstations on each floor and a backbone running vertically from the top of the building to the bottom, connecting all of the segments.


Transmission Flaws: Noise 
electromagnetic interference (EMI): waves emanating from
electrical devices or cables 

radiofrequency interference (RFI): electromagnetic
interference caused by radio waves 

Crosstalk: signal traveling on a wire or cable infringes on
signal traveling over adjacent wire or cable 

Certain amount of signal noise is unavoidable 

All forms of noise measured in decibels (dB)


Figure : An analog signal distorted by noise and then amplified

Figure : A digital signal distorted by noise and then repeated


Delay between transmission and receipt of a signal  Many possible causes:  Cable length  Intervening connectivity device (e.g., modems and routers)  Round trip time (RTT): Time for packets to go from sender to receiver and back  Cabling rated for maximum number of connected network segments  Transmission methods assigned maximum segment lengths


Common Media Characteristics: Throughput 
Probably most significant factor in choosing transmission

Limited by signaling and multiplexing techniques used in
given transmission method 

Transmission methods using fiber-optic cables achieve
faster throughput than those using copper or wireless connections 

Noise and devices connected to transmission medium can
limit throughput

Many variables can influence final cost of implementing
specific type of media: 

Cost of installation  Cost of new infrastructure versus reusing existing

Cost of maintenance and support  Cost of a lower transmission rate affecting productivity  Cost of obsolescence

Size and Scalability 
Three specifications determine size and scalability of
networking media: 

Maximum nodes per segment  Depends on attenuation and latency 

Maximum segment length  Depends on attenuation, latency, and segment type  Populated segment contains end nodes 

Maximum network length  Sum of network¶s segment lengths

Connectors and Media Converters 

Connectors: pieces of hardware connecting wire to network
Every networking medium requires specific kind of connector 

Media converter: hardware enabling networks or segments
running on different media to interconnect and exchange signals 
Type of transceiver 
Device that transmits and receives signals


Noise Immunity 

Some types of media are more susceptible to noise than

Fiber-optic cable least susceptible 

Install cabling away from powerful electromagnetic forces  May need to use metal conduit to contain and protect

Possible to use antinoise algorithms


Entities of Computer Network

‡Service ‡Service ‡Peers

Provider Requester


Entities of Computer Network

‡A Service Provider provides Network SERVERS

Services .


‡A Service Requester CLIENTS

requests Network Services.


‡ Peers

may do both concurrently .


Types Computer Network Classified on Network Entities

Peer to Peer Per-to-Peer Networks allow any entity to both Request and Provide Network Services .

Server Centric Server Centric Networks involve strictly defined roles of entities ( either as a Server or Client ) .


Advantages of Server- Based Networks Server-

1. Strong central security

2. Central file storage, which allows all users to work from the same set of data and provides easy backup of critical data

3. Ability of servers to pool available hardware and software, lowering overall costs


Ability to share expensive equipment, such as laser



Advantages of Server-Based Networks( Cont« ) ServerNetworks

5. Optimized dedicated servers, which are faster than peers at sharing net-work resources

6. Less intrusive security, since a single password allows access to all shared resources on the network

7. Freeing of users from the task of managing the sharing of resources

8. Easy manageability of a large number of users

9. Central organization, which keeps data from getting lost among computers

Disadvantages of Server-Based Networks Server-


Expensive dedicated hardware


Expensive network operating system software and client licenses


A dedicated network administrator (usually required)


Advantages of Peer-to-Peer Networks Peer-to-

1. No extra investment in server hardware or software is required 2. Easy setup 3. No network administrator required 4. Ability of users to control resources sharing 5. No reliance on other computers for their operation 6. Lower cost for small networks

Disadvantages of Peer-to-Peer Networks Peer-to-

1. Additional load on computers because of resource sharing

2. Inability of peers to handle as many network connections as servers

3. Lack of central organization, which can make data hard to find

4. No central point of storage for file archiving


Disadvantages of Peer-to-Peer Networks Peer-to-


Requirement that users administer their own computers


Weak and intrusive security


Lack of central management, which makes large peer networks hard to work with


Hybrid Network ( based on Network Entities )

Hybrid networks have all three types ( Server, Client & Peers ) of computers operating on them and generally have active domains and workgroups. This means that while most shared resources are located on servers, network users still have access to any resources being shared by peers in the workgroup.

It also means network users do not have to log on to the domain controller to access workgroup resources being shared by peers.


A Hybrid Network ( based on Network Entities )

Domain - XYZ

Server Based Networ k Peer-toPeer Network

Workgroup - ABC


Networking Standards Organizations 

Standards: documented agreements containing technical
specifications or other precise criteria stipulating how particular products or services should be designed or performed 
Define minimum acceptable performance 

Many different organizations have evolved to oversee
computer industry¶s standards



American National Standards Institute (ANSI)  Composed of more than a thousand representatives
from industry and government 

Represents United States in setting international

ANSI standards documents available:  ANSI¶s Web site (  At university or public libraries


EIA and TIA 

Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA): Trade organization composed of representatives from electronics manufacturing firms across US  Sets standards for its members  Helps write ANSI standards  Lobbies for legislation favorable to growth of computer and electronics industries  Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA): Focuses on standards for information technology (IT), wireless, satellite, fiber optics, and telephone equipment

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 

International society composed of engineering professionals 

Goals are to promote development and education in
electrical engineering and computer science 

IEEE technical papers and standards are highly respected in
the networking profession 

Can purchase IEEE documents online from IEEE¶s Web
site (

International Organization for Standardization 

Collection of organization standards representing 146

Goal is to establish international technological standards to
facilitate global exchange of information and barrier-free trade 

Fewer than 300 of ISO¶s more than 14,250 standards apply
to computer-related products and functions

International Telecommunication Union 

Regulates international telecommunications:  Radio and TV frequencies  Satellite and telephony specifications  Networking infrastructure  Tariffs applied to global communications 

Typically, documents pertain more to global
telecommunications issues than to industry technical specifications

Internet Society  Professional membership society that helps to establish technical standards for the Internet  Oversees groups with specific missions:  Internet Architecture Board (IAB): Technical advisory group of researchers and professionals  Interested in overseeing Internet¶s design and management  Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF): Sets standards for how systems communicate over the Internet  How protocols operate and interact


Internet Protocol (IP) addresses: Addresses used to identify
computers on the Internet and other TCP/IP-based networks 

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA): Used to keep
records of available and reserved IP addresses and determines how addresses were doled out 

In 1997, coordinated efforts with three Regional Internet
Registries (RIRs) 

Not-for-profit agency that manages distribution of IP
addresses to private and public entities


IANA and ICANN (continued) 
In late 1990s U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC) overhauled IP addressing and domain name management 

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN): Ultimately responsible for IP addressing and domain name management  IANA still performs system administration 

Individuals and businesses lease addresses from Internet Service Provider (ISP)  Business providing access to Internet and other services


The OSI Model 
In 1983, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and what is now the Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T) published a document called "The Basic Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnection." 

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model: divides
network communications into seven layers: 

Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session,
Presentation, and Application 

Protocols perform services unique to layer  Protocols interact with protocols in layers directly above
and below 

Protocol: set of instructions to perform a function or group
of functions 

Written by a programmer

The OSI Model (continued) 
Theoretical representation of what happens between two
nodes communicating on a network 
Does not prescribe type of hardware or software that should support each layer  Does not describe how software programs interact with other software programs or how software programs interact with humans 

Each layer communicates with same layer from one
computer to another 

Model is imperfect

The OSI Model (continued)

Figure : Flow of data through the OSI Model

Application Layer 
Services facilitate communication between software and lower-layer network services  Helps software applications negotiate formatting, procedural, security, synchronization, and other requirements with network  Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): formats and sends requests from client¶s browser to server  Also formats and sends Web server¶s response back to client¶s browser 

Application program interface (API): set of routines that make up part of a software application


Presentation Layer 
Protocols accept Application layer data and format it  So that one type of application and host can understand data from another type of application and host  e.g., translation and conversion between graphics file types 

Manages data encryption and decryption

Session Layer 
Protocols coordinate and maintain communications between
two network nodes 

Establish and maintain communications link for duration
of session 

Keep communication secure  Synchronize dialogue between two nodes  Determine if communications have been cut off  Determine where to restart transmission  Terminate communications


Session Layer (continued) 

Sets terms of communication  Decides which node will communicate first  Decides how long a node can communicate 

Monitors identification of session participants  Ensures that only authorized nodes have access


Transport Layer 
Protocols accept data from Session layer and manage endto-end delivery of data 

Ensure data transferred reliably, in correct sequence,
and without errors 

Protocols also handle flow control  Gauging appropriate rate of transmission based on how
fast recipient can accept data 

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): Takes care of reliably
transmitting HTTP requests from client to server and vice versa


Transport Layer (continued) 

Connection-oriented protocols: ensure that data arrives
exactly as it was sent 

Establish connection before transmitting data  TCP is connection-oriented  Client¶s TCP protocol first sends synchronization
(SYN) packet request to server 

Server responds with synchronizationacknowledgment (SYN-ACK) packet 

Client responds with own acknowledgment (ACK)


Transport Layer (continued) 

Acknowledgments also used to ensure that data was
properly delivered 

For every data unit sent, connection-oriented protocol
expects acknowledgment from recipient 

If no acknowledgment, data retransmitted  Connection-oriented protocols use a checksum  Unique character string allowing receiving node to
determine if arriving data unit exactly matches data unit sent by source


Transport Layer (continued) 

Connectionless protocols do not establish connection before

No effort to ensure data delivered error-free 

Transport layer protocols break large data units received
from Session layer into smaller segments (segmentation) 

Maximum transmission unit (MTU): largest data unit a
given network will carry


Transport Layer (continued) 

Reassembly: process of reconstructing segmented data

Sequencing: method of identifying segments that belong to
same group of subdivided data 

Indicates where unit of data begins  Indicates order in which groups of data were issued  Transport layer protocols of two nodes must synchronize
timing and agree on starting point for the transmission


Transport Layer (continued)

Figure 2-2: Segmentation and Reassembly

Transport Layer (continued)

Figure : A TCP segment

Network Layer 

Primary functions of protocols:  Translate network addresses into physical counterparts  Decide how to route data from sender to receiver  Each node has two types of addresses:  Network address: follows hierarchical addressing scheme  Can be assigned through OS software  Network layer addresses, logical addresses, or virtual addresses  Physical address

Network Layer (continued) 

Network layer protocols accept Transport layer segments
and add logical addressing information in network header 

Network layer handles routing  Determining best network path  IP: Network layer protocol that underlies most Internet

Fragmentation: Network layer protocol subdivides
segments it receives from Transport layer into smaller packets


Network Layer (continued)

Figure : An IP packet

Data Link Layer 

Protocols divide received data into distinct frames  Can then be transmitted by Physical layer 

Frame: structured package for moving data  Raw data  ³payload´  Sender¶s and receiver¶s network addresses  Error checking and control information

Data Link Layer (continued) 
Error checking accomplished by 4-byte Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field  Ensures data at destination exactly matches data issued from source  When source node transmits data, performs Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) to get FCS  Destination node¶s Data Link layer services unscramble FCS via same CRC algorithm 

Data Link layer divided into two sub-layers:  Logical Link Control  Media Access Control


Data Link Layer (continued)

Figure : The Data Link layer and its sublayers

Data Link Layer (continued) 
Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer:  Provides interface to Network layer protocols  Manages flow control  Issues requests for transmission for data that has
suffered errors 

Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer:  Manages access to physical layer  Appends destination computer¶s physical address
onto data frame (MAC address, Data Link layer address, or hardware address)


Data Link Layer (continued)

Figure : A NIC¶s MAC address

Data Link Layer (continued) 

MAC addresses contain two parts:  Block ID: six-character sequence unique to vendor  Device ID: six-character sequence based on NIC¶s model and manufacture date


Physical Layer 
Protocols accept frames from Data Link layer and generate voltage to transmit signals  When receiving data, protocols detect voltage and accept signals  Protocols also set data transmission rate and monitor data error rates  Cannot perform error correction  NICs operate at both Physical layer and Data Link layer  Network administrators mostly concerned with bottom four layers of OSI Model Confidential

Applying the OSI Model

Table : Functions of the OSI layers

Communication Between Two Systems

Figure : Data transformation through the OSI Model

Frame Specifications 
The two major categories of frame types:  Ethernet  Four types of Ethernet frames  Most popular form characterized by unique way in
which devices share a common transmission channel (described in IEEE 802.3 standard) 

Token Ring: relies on direct links between nodes and a
ring topology 

Nodes pass around tokens (control frames that
indicate to network when a node is about to transmit data)

IEEE Networking Specifications 

Apply to connectivity, networking media, error checking algorithms, encryption, emerging technologies, and more 

Specifications fall under IEEE¶s ³Project 802´  Effort to standardize physical and logical elements of a network


IEEE Networking Specifications (continued)

Table : IEEE 802 standards

IEEE Networking Specifications (continued)

Table : IEEE 802 standards

Data Encapsulation 

The primary interaction between the protocols operating
at the various layers of the OSI model takes the form of each protocol adding headers (and in one case, a footer) to the information it receives from the layer above it. 









protocols add their headers and footer to the request generated by the application.


Standards are documented agreements containing precise criteria that are used as guidelines to ensure that materials, products, processes, and services suit their purpose  ISO¶s OSI Model divides networking architecture into seven layers  Each OSI layer has its own set of functions and interacts with the layers directly above and below it.  Application layer protocols enable software to negotiate their formatting, procedural, security, and synchronization with the network

Summary (continued) 
Presentation layer protocols serve as translators between the application and the network  Session layer protocols coordinate and maintain links between two devices for the duration of their communication  Transport layer protocols oversee end-to-end data delivery  Network layer protocols manage logical addressing and determine routes based on addressing, patterns of usage, and availability

Summary (continued) 
Data Link layer protocols organize data they receive from the Network layer into frames that contain error checking routines and can then be transmitted by the Physical layer  Physical layer protocols generate and detect voltage to transmit and receive signals carrying data over a network medium  Data frames are small blocks of data with control, addressing, and handling information attached to them