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Voltage Amplifier

NPM: 1406642971
MEKATRONIKA - 02

Conten
ts
Introduction

Operational Amplifier
Ideal Op Amp
Inverting Amplifier
Noninverting Amplifier
Sampel Problem and Solution

Introduction
Symbol

Non-inverting input

+
-

Output

Operational Amplifier ( Op Amp )

The Op Amp Model
Non-inverting input
Inverting input

v+
v-

+
Rin
-

+
-

The op amp is designed to sense the difference between the voltage

signals applied to the two input terminals and then multiply it by a
gain factor A such that the voltage at the output terminal is A(v+-v-).
The voltage gain A is very large (practically infinite). The gain A is
often referred to as the differential gain or open-loop gain.
The input resistance Rin is very large (practically infinite). The output
resistance Ro is very small (practically zero).

Ro
A(v+ -v- )

vo

Ideal Op Amp

Voltage Amplifier
Inverting Configuration
The same assumptions used to
find the equations for the
noninverting configuration are
also used for the inverting
configuration.
General Equations:
i1 = vin/R1
iF = i 1
vo = -iFRF = -vinRF/R1
Av = RF/R1

= R1/RF

Input and Output Resistance

Ideally, the input resistance for this configuration is equivalent to R 1.
However, the actual value of the input resistance is given by the following
formula:
Rin = R1 +
RF
1 + AOL
Ideally, the output resistance is zero, but the formula below gives a more
accurate value:
RoF =
Ro
1 + AOL
Note:

R1

R1 + RF on the previous slide, which can be confusing.

Inverting Configuration
Example
Given: vin = 0.6 V, RF = 20 k
R1 = 2 k , AOL = 400k
Rin = 8 M , Ro = 60
Find: vo , iF , Av , , RinF and RoF
Solution:
vo = -iFRF = -vinRF/R1 = -(0.6*20,000)/2000 = 12 V
iF = i1 = vin/R1 = 1 / 2000 = 0.5 mA
Av = RF/R1 = 20,000 / 2000 = 10 = R1/RF = 2000 / 20,000 = 0.1
Rin = R1 +
RF
= 2000 + 20,000
= 2,000.05
RoF =

1 + AOL
Ro =
1 + AOL

60

1 + 400,000
= 1.67 m
1 + 0.09*400,000

Noninverting Amplifier
vid = vo/AOL
Assuming AOL
vid =0
Also, with the assumption
that Rin =
i(+) = i(-) = 0
Applying KVL the
following equations can
be found:
v1 = vin
vO = v1 + vF = vin+ iFRF

This means that,

iF = i1
Therefore: iF = vin/R1
Using the equation to the left the output
voltage becomes:
vo = vin + vinRF = vin RF + 1
R1

R1

The closed-loop voltage gain is symbolized by Av and is found to be:

Av = v o = RF + 1
vin

R1

AF is the amplifier
gain with
The original closed loop gain equation is:
Av =feedback
AF =
AOL

1 + AOL
Ideally AOL , Therefore Av = 1

Note: The actual value of AOL is given for the specific device and usually ranges
from 50k 500k.
is the feedback factor and by assuming open-loop gain is infinite:
=
R1
R1 + R F

Input and Output Resistance

Ideally, the input resistance for this configuration is infinity, but the a
closer prediction of the actual input resistance can be found with the
following formula:
RinF = Rin (1 + AOL)

Where Rin is given for the

specified device. Usually Rin is
in the M range.
Ideally, the output resistance is zero, but the formula below gives a more
accurate value:
RoF =
Ro
Where Ro is given for the
AOL + 1

specified device. Usually R o is in

the 10s of s range.

Noninverting Configuration Example

Solution:
vo = vin + vinRF = 0.6 + 0.6*2x105 = 60.6 V
mA
R1
2000
R1
2000
Av = RF + 1 = 2x105 + 1 = 101
R1

2000

iF = vin = 0.6

= 1 = 1 = 9.9x10-3
AOL

101

RinF = Rin (1 + AOL) = 8x106 (1 + 9.9x10-3*4x105) = 3.1688x1010

RoF =
Ro
=
60
= 0.015
AOL + 1
9.9x10-3*4x105 + 1

= 0.3