You are on page 1of 26


An abundance of valuable material

possessions or resources; riches.
The state of being rich; affluence.
All goods and resources having
value in terms of exchange or use.
A great amount; a profusion.

A measure of the value of all of the assets of worth owned by a

person, community, company or country. Wealth is the found
by taking the total market value of all the physical and intangible
assets of the entity and then subtracting all debts

a stock or supply of money, materials, staff, and other assets that can
be drawn on by a person or organization in order to function

A resource is a source or supply from which benefit is

produced. Typically resources are materials, energy,
services, staff, knowledge, or other assets that are
transformed to produce benefit and in the process may be
consumed or made unavailable.
Benefits of resource utilization may include increased
wealth, meeting needs or wants, proper functioning of a
system, or enhanced well being.

Endowment is any natural stuff that
exists in nature.
For example most of the minerals
before the industrial revolution were
present in the nature but their use
was not known to us. Therefore these
minerals were not resources, but
they were endowment at that time.

Potential resources

Potential resources are those that

exist in a region and may be used in
the future. For example, petroleum
may exist in many parts of India,
having sedimentary rocks but until
the time it is actually drilled out and
put into use, it remains a potential

Dynamics of resources
Resource is not static but dynamic. It
changes in quality and quantity in
response to tap and utilize it . There
are many factors which make
resources dynamic. These factors
Knowledge- finding out, tapping, the
resources from nature he should
have knowledge about oil in middle
east etc.

Technological Advancement
It adds not only new resources but it
also enables man to use existing
resources in a better manner. For eg .
River water in olden days was used
only for drinking ,transportation and
agriculture. Today we are using it for
generation of hydro electricity and

Discovering of new resource

producing areas
Man is continuously trying to search
for new areas for tapping different
resources. Eg new oil fields in Gujarat
and Mumbai.
Decrease in resources
Due to continuous exploitation of
resources they get dwindled. Eg
removal of protection vegetation
cover resulted in the soil erosion in
the hilly areas.


A renewable resource is one that is quickly replenished, like

sunlight or bamboo : Energy has various forms that can be
found in our world, and this forms of energy have so called
renewable . Renewable Resources are natural resources that can
be replenished naturally with the passage of time.

A non-renewable resource (also called a finite resource) is a

resource that does not renew itself at a sufficient rate for
sustainable economic extraction in meaningful human timeframes. An example is carbon-based, organically-derived fuel.
The original
organic material, with the aid of heat and
pressure, becomes a fuel such as oil or gas. Fossil fuels (such
as coal, petroleum, and natural gas), and certain aquifers are
all non-renewable resources. Metal ores are other examples
of non-renewable.

Limitations in the use of


Cost benefit analysis

Cheaper substitutes
Lack of capital
Lack of market
Shortage of skilled labour
Political factors
Resource policy

the branch of biology that deals with the relations of organisms to one another and
to their physical surroundings.
the political movement concerned with protection of the environment.
Ecology is the scientific study of interactions of organisms with one another and
with the physical and chemical environment.
Although it includes the study of environmental problems such as pollution, the
science of ecology mainly involves research on the natural world from many
viewpoints, using many techniques.
Modern ecology relies heavily on experiments, both in laboratory and in field
settings. These techniques have proved useful in testing ecological theories, and in
arriving at practical decisions concerning the management of natural resources.

Natural ecosystem : are self regulatory
and driven by the solar energy. Forest
ecosystem, lake ,pond, grassland.
Artificial ecosystems : are known as
human engineered ecosystems . They
depend on human interventions to
meet their energy requirements .eg
plantation, crops ecosystems.

Components of ecosystem
1.Biotic (living): a)
b)heterotrophs (consumers)-----micro consumers & macro
2.Abiotic (non living): physical
components and chemical

Functions of ecosystems
Three functions of ecosystems
Primary function,
Distributing energy,
Material cycling.
All functions are influenced by the
sunlight that is solar energy.

Food chain

A food chain is a linear sequence of links in a food web starting
from a species that are called producers in the web and ends at a
species that is called decomposers species in the web

Disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a community

or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or
environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the
affected community or society to cope using its own resources.
Natural Hazard
A Natural Hazard is a natural process or phenomenon that may cause loss of life, injury
or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and
economic disruption, or environmental damage.

Various phenomena like earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions,

floods, tornadoes, blizzards, tsunamis, and cyclones are all natural
hazards that kill thousands of people and destroy billions of dollars of
habitat and property each year. However, natural hazards can strike in
non-populated areas and never develop into disasters However, the rapid
growth of the world's population and its increased concentration often in
hazardous environments has escalated both the frequency and severity of

Human-Instigated Disasters
Human-Instigated disasters are the consequence of technological
hazards. Examples include stampedes, fires, transport accidents,
industrial accidents, oil spills and nuclear explosions/radiation.
War and deliberate attacks may also be put in this category. As with
natural hazards, man-made hazards are events that have not happened,
for instance terrorism. Man-made disasters are examples of specific
cases where man-made hazards have become reality in an event.