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MAGNETIC

REFRIGERATION
Presented by
M.NUSRATH AHAMED.
3VC06ME025
Dept of Mechanical Engg
R.Y.M.E.C
BELLARY.

OBJECTIVE
To develop more efficient and costeffective small-scale H2 liquefiers
as an alternative to vapourcompression
cycles
using
magnetic refrigeration
(adiabatic magnetization).

CONTENTS
Introduction
History
Basic principle of Magnetic
Refrigeration
Components
Thermodynamic cycle
Working
Benefits
Magnetic materials
Regenerators & Superconducting
Magnets
Active magnetic regenerators
(AMRs)
Comparison

INTRODUCTION
Magnetic refrigeration is a physical
process that exploits the magnetic
properties of certain solid materials to
produce refrigeration.
Magnetic refrigeration is a cooling
technology based on the magneto
caloric effect. This technique can be
used
to
attain
extremely
low
temperatures (well below 1 Kelvin), as
well as the ranges used in common
refrigerators, depending on the design
of the system.

HISTORY
Magneto caloric effect was discovered in pure
iron in 1881 by
E. Warburg.
Debye (1926) & Giauque (1927) proposed a
improved technique of cooling via adiabatic
demagnetization independently.
The cooling technology was first demonstrated
experimentally in 1933 by chemist Nobel
Laureate William F. Giauque & his colleague Dr.
D. P. MacDougall for cryogenic purposes.
In 1997, Prof. Karl A. Gschneidner, Jr. by the Iowa
State
University
at
Ames
Laboratory,
demonstrated the first near room temperature
proof of concept magnetic refrigerator.

Magneto Caloric Effect


MCE is a magneto-thermodynamic
phenomenon in which a reversible
change in temperature of a suitable
material is caused by exposing the
material to changing magnetic field.

COMPONENTS
Magnets.
Hot heat
exchanger.
Cold heat
exchanger.
Drive.
Magneto caloric
wheel.

Thermodynamic cycle
Steps of thermodynamic
cycle Adiabatic
magnetization.
Isomagnetic enthalpic
transfer.
Adiabatic
demagnetization.
Isomagnetic entropic
transfer.

WORKING

PRINCIPLE

BENEFITS
TECHNICAL
High efficiency.
Reduced cost.
Compactness.
Reliability

SOCIO-ECONOMIC
Competition in
global market.
Low capital cost.
Key factor to new
technologies.

MAGNETIC MATERIALS

Gd alloys: Gd5(Si2Ge2); Gd5(Si0.33Ge3.67);


Gd0.54Er0.46)NiAl

REGENERATORS
a) Tubes.
b) Perforated
plates.
c) Wire
screens.
d) Particle
beds.

SUPER CONDUCTING MAGNETS

AMRs
High heat transfer rate.
Low pressure drop of the heat transfer
fluid.
High magneto caloric effect.
Sufficient structural integrity.
Low thermal conduction in the direction of
fluid flow.
Low porosity.
Affordable materials.
Ease of manufacture.

COMPARISON

CONTD
Do the same job, but with metallic
compounds, not gases.
Environmentally friendly alternative
to conventional vapor-cycle
refrigeration.
It eliminates the need of the
compressor.
Save costs.

ACTIVITIES

( PRESENT & FUTURE

)
Development of optimized magnetic
refrigerants.
( large magneto caloric effect )
Performance simulations of magnetic
refrigerants.
Design of a magnetic liquefier.

CONCLUSION
Magnetic refrigeration technology could
provide a green alternative to traditional
energy-guzzling gas-compression fridges and
air conditioners.
Computer models have shown 25% efficiency
improvement over vapor compression
systems.
Two advantages to using Magnetic
Refrigeration over vapor compressed systems
are no hazardous chemicals used and they can
be up to 60% efficient.

Promoting
energy
efficiency

THANK
YOU