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ANATOMY OF THE

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Prof. dr.H.Abd. Razak Datu, Ph.D.


Department of Anatomy
Medical Faculty UNHAS

Thorax Wall and


Thorax Cavity

Reference lines of thorax

Anterior median line


Sternal line
Midclavicular line
Parasternal line
Anterior axillary line
Post axillary line
Midaxillary line
Scapular line
Posterior median line

Thoracic wall
Skin
Superficial fascia
PECTORAL FASCIA

Muscle
bone
Deep fascia
ENDOTHORACIC FASCIA

Diaphragm

The muscles of thorax


Extrinsic muscles

M. sternocleidomastoideus
Mm. scaleni
M. Pectoralis major
M. Pectoralis minor
M. Serratus anterior

Intrinsic muscles

M. Intercostales externi
M. Intercostales interni
Im. ntercostales intimi
M. Transverses thoracis

Thoracic Walls Muscles of


Respiration

Intercostales externi
Origin: lower border of ri
Insertion: upper border of rib
below origin
Action: elevate ribs adding in
forced inspiration
Replaced anteriorly by external
intercostals membrane.

Intercostales interni
Origin: upper border of rib
Insertion: lower border of rib
above origin
Action: depress ribs for forced
expiration
Replaced posteriorly by
internal intercostals
membrane.

Intercostal space
Posterior intercostal v.
Posterior intercostal a.
Intercostal n.

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Arteries of thorax
Pulmonary trunk

Arises from right ventricle


Runs up, back ,and to the left
Bifurcates inferior to aortic arch
into right and left pulmonary
arteries, one for each lung

Pulmonary arteries

Right pulmonary artery passes


posterior to ascending aorta and
superior vena cava to hilum of
right lung
Left pulmonary artery passes
anterior to descending aorta and
left main bronchus to hilum of left
lung

Internal thoracic vessels


Internal thoracic a.&v.
Parasternal ln.
Endothoracic fascia

Internal thoracic artery


descends into thorax
1.2cm lateral to edge of
sternum, and ends at the
sixth costal cartilage by
dividing musculophrenic
and superior epigastric
arteries

Veins of thorax
Brachiocephalic veins

Formed by union of internal jugular and


subclavian veins posterior to the
sternoclavicular joint
Angle of union is termed venous angle

Superior vena cava

Formed by union of right and left


brachiocephalic veins behind the right
sternocostal synchorndrosis of first rib
Runs vertically down on right of ascending
aorta
Joined by azygos vein at level of sternal
angle
Enters right atrium at lever of lower border
of third right sternocostal joint
Collects blood from veins of upper half of
body

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Respiratory Tract
Upper Respiratory Tract
Superior to Larynx

Lower Respiratory Tract

Larynx
Trachea
Primary Bronchi
Secondary Bronchi
Rest of Bronchial Tree
Lungs
Conducting passageways carrying air to and from the alveoli
-Upper respiratory passages filter and humidify incoming air
-Lower passageways include delicate conduction passages and
alveolar exchange surfaces

Respiratory System
1.NASAL CAVITY
2.LARYNX
3.TRACHEA
4.BRONCHUS
5.LUNGS
6.PLEURA
7.THORACIC DIAPHRAGM

NASAL CAVITY
The nasal cavity extends from the nostril in
front to the posterior nasal aperture or
Choanae behind
The nose opens into the nasopharynx
The nasal vestibule is the area of the nasal
cavity lying just inside the nostril.
The nasal cavity is divided into right and left
halves by the septum
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Nasal cavity

Pyramidal space, narrower in front than behind


Divided in to right and left halves (nasal septum)
Nares anterior (= nostril)
Nares posterior (= choanae)

Function

Conducting Zone
Warm and moisten air
Filter air
Resonating chamber for speech
Sense of smell

Boundaries of Nasal Cavity


Roof = ethmoid bone
Floor = maxilla
Lateral walls = nasal
bones,
(superior, inferior +
middle) nasal conchae,
maxilla, palatine bone
Medial wall (=Nasal
Septum), divides cavity
into 2 portions

Nasal Cavity (cont.)


Lined with mucosa
Warm and moisten
Highly vascular
Secrete mucus

Vestibule - space
inside external
nares
Vibrissae nose
hairs filter particles
from air

Nasal Conchae
Project medially from each
lateral wall of nasal cavity
Superior, inferior, middle
nasal conchae
Superior, inferior, middle
nasal meatus
Covered with mucosa
Function
Increase surface area
Increase turbulance
Reclaim heat from
exhaled air

The Paranasal Sinuses


The Paranasal sinuses are continuation of
nasal cavity.
FRONTAL SINUSES
MAXILLARY SINUSES
SPHENOID SINUSES
ETHMOIDA SINUSES

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Paranasal sinuses

THE PARANASAL SINUSES


FRONTAL SINUSES
MAXILLARY SINUSES
SPHENOID SINUSES
ETHMOIDA SINUSES

Frontal
Sinus
Sphenoidal
Sinus

Ethmoidal
Sinuses
Nasal
septum
Nasal
Cavity

Maxillary
Sinus

Inferior
conchae
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Function of The Paranasal


Sinuses
To reduce the weight of the skull
Warm & Moisten air
Filter air
To act as resonators to the voice.
When the apertures of the sinuses are blocked, or they become filled
with fluid, the quality of the voice is markedly changed

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