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Ventilation

Dr. Rahul Netragaonkar


Associate Professor

Air of occupied room


Occupied room air

Vitiated air
Human activity

Chemical changes
CO2 & O2
At rest 0.7 cu ft CO2 /hr/per person

Air of occupied room


Physical changes Temperature Body expels heat
Humidity Skin & lung perspiration
700gm vapour/man/day
Air movement Overcrowding (Obstruction)

Air of occupied room


Physical changes Body odour Perspiration, bad oral hygiene,
dirty cloths
Bacterial pollution
Exhaled air - microorganisms
During conversation, coughing, sneezing
talking, spitting etc.

Air of occupied room


Causes Discomfort ,
efficiency of work ,
Headache ,
drowsiness ,
inability to concentrate

Indices of thermal comfort


1. AIR TEMPERATURE:
2. AIR TEMPERATURE AND
HUMIDITY:.
3. COOLING POWER : Air temperature,
humidity and air movement were
considered together and expressed as
"cooling power" of the air.
An instrument was devised by Hill
called the Kata Thermometer to
measure the cooling power.
A dry Kata reading of 6 and above,
and a wet Kata reading of 20 and
above, were regarded as indices of
thermal comfort.

1. EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURE: temperature, humidity and


movement of the internal air on the sensation of warmth or
cold felt by the human body..
2. CORRECTED EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURE: Improvement
over the Effective Temperature Index.
Instead of the dry bulb temperature, the reading of the
Globe Thermometer is used to allow for radiant heat.
Air temperature, velocity, humidity and mean radiant heat.
1. McARDLES MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE SWEAT RATE : 4.5
litres of sweat excreted in four hours as the maximum
allowable sweat rate compatible with physiological normal
reaction of acclimatized, healthy young men for repeated
exposures to heat.
McArdle has put P4SR value of 3 as upper limit of comfort
zone

Comfort zones
Comfortable thermal conditions are those under which a
person can maintain normal balance between production
and loss of heat, at normal body temperature and without
sweating.
Corrected effective temperature deg C
1. Pleasant and cool----------------------------------------------- 20
2. Comfortable and cool-------------------------------------------20-25
3. Comfortable-------------------------------------------------------25-27
4. Hot and uncomfortable-----------------------------------------27-28
5. Extremely hot-----------------------------------------------------28 +
6. Intolerably hot----------------------------------------------------30 +

Predicted four-hour sweat rate


(P4SR)
1.Comfort zone--------1-3 litres
2.Just tolerable---------3-4.5 litres
3.Intolerable-------------4.5 + litres

Ventilation
Definition :Replacement of vitiated air &
control of incoming air with regard
to its temperature, humidity &
purity.

Ventilation
Standards of ventilation: Cubic space- Min. 300-3000 cu. ft /hr/per
Air change Living room-2-3 /hr
Work rooms & Assemblies 4-6 /hr

Floor space- 50-100 sq. ft./per

Ventilation
Natural
Types of ventilation:Mechanical

Natural
The windPerflation

Aspiration

Cross Ventilation

Ventilation
Natural
DiffusionPasses

Small openings & spaces

Inequality of temperatureHigh density


Low density
DrawbacksCannot regulate- velocity, temp, humidity

Ventilation
Mechanical
Exhaust ventilation In halls, auditoriums,
Industries etc.

Ventilation
Mechanical
Plenum ventilation (Propultion)

Ventilation
Mechanical
Balanced ventilation (Combination)
Exhaust + Plenum

Ventilation
Mechanical
Air conditioning
Simultaneous control of factors
Physical & Chemical
Temperature, humidity, movement,
distribution, dust, bacteria, odour & toxic gase
Affect human health

Ventilation
Place
Industries ,
hospitals ,
operation theatre

Process
Filter

distribution

vapour
saturation

removal of excess
moisture

heating
at desired temperature

Air conditioning
Difference in Outside temp & inside temp <20*C
Desirable 10 15 *C

Transition room For Acclimatization


If temperature difference is large between outside
atmosphere and air conditioned room, "transition
room" is sometimes provided, which maintains
temperature in between the two, so as to prevent
sudden exposure to high or low temperature.