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Technical Studies I

Product Design
National Institute of Design

http://www.sciencefair-projects.org/images-sciencefair/physics/physics16.gif

Static ElectricityDemo!
Static imbalance of electrons

Current Electricity
Static or current?
Current caused by breakdown of
insulation storing static electricity

http://cthomeblog.files.wordpress.com/2009/04/electric-light-bulb_web2.jpg

http://www-lecb.ncifcrf.gov/~toms/icons/lightningbolt.gif

Steady flow of electrons

http://www.power-technology.com/contractor_images/argillon2/1_Redwitz-Substation.jpg

Clothes static
Comb static
Car door shock

Lightening bolt

Demo!

http://www.cartoonstock.com/lowres/ate0078l.jpg
http://www.practicalphysics.org/imageLibrary/jpeg400/1081.jpg

http://www.jimhillmedia.com/mb/images/upload/Van-de-Graaf-Generator-web.jpg

Van deGraff
?The
generator

TRIBOELECTRIC SERIES

Human skin
Glass
Human hair
Nylon
Wool
Paper
Cotton
Wood
Amber
Hard rubber
Polyester
Styrene (Thermocole)
Plastic wrap
Polyurethene
Polyethylene (eg scotch tape)
Polypropylene
Polyvinylchloride
Silicone
Teflon

Neutral

Pollution control
Xerography
Painting, powder coating

Coulombs law:

+q1

-q2

-q2

-q1

r
+q1

ke = 9x109
Electrostatic forces are very large !

F
F
r = r

-q2
If r = r,
Then F = ?4 x F

PROJECT

1 Exhibit on Bending water


PROJECT 2 Build a Van deGraff generator

http://sci-toys.com/scitoys/scitoys/electro/vdg/step_9.jpg

http://www.sciencemadesimple.com/static.html

http://www.uberreview.com/2007/11/static-electricity-eliminator-for-the-fortitude-challenged.htm

Fabric softener

https://www.marionsupply.com/fles/PGC%2080168.jpg

Static electricity eliminator

http://www.seventhgeneration.com/fles/images/products/large/prod_laundry_fabric-softener_40oz-bel_260x282.jpg

DC Appliances:
Those required to produce
Directed motion
Chemical action

Sources of AC Power:

Power plants (Mains)


Generator sets (Gensets)

Appliance

Direct current (DC)


AC power source

Oscilloscope Demo!

DC power source

Alternating current (AC)


Appliance

Sources of DC Power:

AC-ok Appliances:
Those required to produce
Heat
Light
Vibratory motion
Sound

Batteries
Thermocouples
Photovoltaic cells

Charge q = amount of electricity (electrons / protons)

unit: ?Coulomb (C)


1 coulomb = charge on 6.241 5061018 (billion billion) electrons
= electrons in 0.224mm copper wire (0.12mm dia)
= electrons in 0.704mm aluminium wire (0.12mm dia)
Charge on one electron = 1.60217648710-19 C

Current = charge flow per unit time


I=q/t
1 ampere = 1 coulomb per second
= 6.241 506 billion billion electrons
flowing past a point per second
= free electrons in 6.5mm copper wire (0.12mm dia)

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Electron_shell_029_copper.png

All current electricity is produced by converting other forms of


energy to electricity, often in many steps.

Energy forms:

From 4 basic energy forms:


A

n
productio
r
e
w
o
p
le
a
ll large sc

Water
Nuclear
reaction

Chemical energy
Wind
Hydel
Power
plant

Wind
farm

Nuclear Power
plant
Faraday
generator

Steam
Burning
fuel

Battery

Thermal Power
plant

Engine

Genset

Bicycle
dynamo

Human
power

Thermocouple

Kinetic
energy

Heat energy

MHD
generator
Photovoltaic cells

Ionised
gas
Light energy

Large scale
City level: mains power in homes, offices

Power plants

Medium scale
Company level: mains power in offices

Captive power plants

Small scale
Community appliances, eg: street lights

Captive power units (solar panels)

Homes

UPS
Inverters

Shops, public functions, residential societies

Gensets

Personal scale
Appliance level, personal power

Batteries

Usage of types in India:


1.Thermal (75%)
2.Hydel (21%)
3.Nuclear (3.x%)
Advantages
4.Wind (<1%)

Infrastructure easy to
setup
Abundant coal reserves

Fuel-free
Pollution-free
Fuel-free
Pollution-free

No GHGs
V. concentrated energy source

Interference
in river flow
Upstream
submergence

Pollution
Fossil-fuel
depletion

Risks
potentially
fatal
Winds not
present always

Problems

Show!

Current type: AC
?

Voltage

Show!

India: 220
? V (US: 110 V)

Frequency

Show!

(US: 60 Hz)
India: 50Hz
?

Polarity

Show!

Live
Neutral
Earth

Conductors
Metals
>
: 80%
Semiconductor
s

Conductors

Resistance of conductor

Good conductors
Metals
Salt solutions
Carbon (graphite)

Good insulators

= material resistivity
l = length
A = cross sectional area

Wood
Rubber
Plastic
Glass

Semiconductors
Silicon
Germanium

of conductor

A
B
C
D

RA
RB = 2RA
RC = RA
RDR A

Coating:

Bare wire: copper, aluminium


Coated wire: enamelled copper wire
Sheathed wire: copper

Material:

Copper
Aluminium

Strands:

Single strand
Multi-strand

Shape:

Coaxial
Twisted
Flat

Series-connected appliances
Same current flows through each appliance
One broken device breaks the entire circuit
Example: ?
V1

i common
V = V1 + V2 + V3

V2

Appliance 1

V3

Appliance 2

Appliance 3

i
V

Parallel-connected appliances

i1

Appliance 1

Voltage across each appliance is the same


Each appliance draws its own current;
Total current is sum of each appliances currents;
Excessively overloaded outlets cause large current
to be drawn and can result in fuse blowing or
circuit breaker tripping
Device breakage do not affect each other
All household appliances are connected in parallel

V common
i=i1+i2+i3

i2

Appliance 2
Appliance 3
i3

Series-connected appliances
Total resistance = Sum of individual resistances
Req = R1 + R2 + R3 +

Appliance 1 (R1)

Appliance
Req =2?(R2)

Appliance 3 (R3)

Appliance 1 (R1)

Parallel-connected appliances
Total resistance < least of the individual resistances
1/Req = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 +

Appliance
Req = 2?(R2)
Appliance 3 (R3)

R2

R1
Req

Series-connected batteries
Total voltage = sum of individual voltages
Used when voltage larger than provided by individual battery is
required
V2
+
Veq = V1 + V2 + V3
Veq=?
V1 V
3

Parallel-connected batteries
Total voltage = largest of the individual voltages
Provides larger current (if drawn) over the same time V
or same current for a larger time
V
Used when battery life is to be extended
Veq=? +
Dangerous to use if batteries dont match
1

V3

Veq = max(V1, V2, V3)

Electromotive force
the force required to drive electrons through the circuit

Current
the time rate at which electrons flow through the circuit

Resistance
a measure of the opposition provided by the circuit to the flow of
electrons. Analogous to friction or damping.

Inductance
a measure of the opposition provided by the circuit to any change in the
current: electromagnetic effect. Analogous to mass.

Capacitance
a measure of a devices capacity for accumulating charge. Analogous to
spring.

A = cross sectional area of tank

fP
Ph
fa
f 1/l

f current I
h = height of
P voltage V
water column
a/l resistance R
Amount of water W Amount of charge Q
Capacitance C = Q/V W/h = A
a = cross-sectional area of pipe

l = length of pipe

f = flow rate of water


(litres per second?)

Parameter

Text
Symbol

Unit

DC emf source

Voltage

Volt

AC emf source

Voltage

Volt

Resistor

Resistance

Ohm ()

Capacitor

Capacitanc
e

Farad (F)

Inductor

Inductance

Henry (H)

Element

Symbol

Element
Switch
Fuse
Transformer
Potentiometer
LED
Diode
Rectifer

Symbol

Parameter
Pole, Throw:
SPST, SPDT,
DPST, DPDT

Text Symbol

Rating
Max current
Max current

Ohms law:
Current = voltage drop / resistance
I=V/R

Power = Voltage * Current


P = V . I = I2R = V2/R

Energy consumed = Power consumed x time


E=P.t
= V.I.t = I2 R t = V2t/R

Wattage of appliances (100W bulb, 1000W heater, 250W


audio speakers, 450W mixer)
The power the appliance will consume to produce the desired
effect (light/heat/sound intensity) when subjected to the rated
voltage.

Voltage (9V DC / 12V DC / 110V AC)


The voltage for which the performance of the device is rated.

Amperage (5A: TV switch, 15A geyser switch)


The maximum current that the switch will safely pass for the
rated voltage.

Fuse:
Deliberately designed weak point in the circuit,
meant to break the circuit when current
exceeds safe limits
Akin to perforation in a piece of paper
Made of easily melted metal
Have to replace. Fuse wire should be handy.
Easy to trick and render meaningless

Circuit breaker:
Solenoid activated spring loaded relay designed to trigger when excess
current is drawn
No servicing on tripping. Just flick it back ON.
Cant trick

http://www.bombayharbor.com/productImage/0404073001242788540/Circuit_Breaker.jpg
http://www.skeswitchgears.com/images/kit-kat-100.jpg

Physiological phenomenon of sudden and


severe muscular contraction
DC: Muscles stay contracted, causing victim to hold on (= get stuck) to the
live conductor
AC: Muscles go into spasms

Severity depends upon

Current passing through body


Path through the body (organs it passes through)
Entry and exit points on the body
Duration of exposure
Frequency of current

Current thresholds:
Perception begins: 5-10 mA DC, 1-10 mA AC.

Skin resistance:
Dry skin: 100,000 /cm2
Wet skin: 1,000 /cm2

Frequency threshold:

> 20 KHz AC: no shock felt

Current thresholds:
Electric
Current
(1 sec
contact)

Physiological effect

1mA

Voltage required to
produce the
current in
Dry body

Wet body

Threshold of feeling (AC), tingling


sensation

100 V

1V

5mA

Threshold of feeling (DC): minimum


harmless current

500 V

5V

10-20 mA

"Can't let go!" current - onset of


sustained
muscular contraction.

1,000 V

10 V

100-300 mA

Ventricular fbrillation, fatal if continued.


Respiratory function continues

10,000 V

100 V

Voltage levels:

AA/AAA/D cell: 1.2 1.5V DC


Square cell: 9V DC
Automobile battery : 12V DC
Telephone line : 48 V DC, upto 90 V DC (when ringing)
Domestic mains : 220V AC
Railway overhead lines : 1,500 V DC / 25,000 V AC
Automobile spark plug : 6,000-35,000 V DC
Open countryside transmission lines : 230,000 V ( 69,000 V 4,400 V
220 V) AC
Lightning : ~100 MV (100,000,000 V)

Rbird
Shock?
No. Why?
Rbird >> Rshort wire
Voltage?
230,000 V

Rshort wire
Rlong wire

Shock?
Yes. Why?
Rbird Rdrawn-out wire
Shock?
Yes. Why?
Rbird Rlong wire
Bird short-circuits the wire
Rdrawn-out wire

http://farm1.static.flickr.com/29/43001321_52eeba4d3a.jpg?v=0
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/imgele/birdw.gif

Wearing shoes (dry)


One hand in pocket operation
Earthing all your AC appliances
Not using wet hands

Potentiometer
Provides a variable voltage at output

Rheostat
Provides a variable current at output
Example: ?

Relays
Cause one circuit to be activated by another electromagnetically

Analog: electromagnetism-based
Moving coil
Moving iron

Galvanometer
Ammeter
Voltmeter
Ohmmeter

Digital: electronics-based
Multi-meter

Transformer
Convert from one voltage to another
Step-up: lower to higher voltage
Step-down: higher to lower voltage
eg, 220V 12V

Rectifer
Convert from AC to DC
Full-wave
Half-wave