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EXCRETA DISPOSAL

Public health importance:


Very society has a responsibility for its safe
removal and disposal.
The health hazards of improper disposal:
1. Soil pollution
2. Water pollution
3. Contamination of foods and
4. Propagation of flies
The resulting diseases

Extent of the problem in India:


Nearly 74% of Indias population live in rural
areas and majority of them go to the
fields for defecation.
How disease is carried from excreta :
Faecal-borne diseases are trasmitted to a
new host through various channels.
1. Water
2. Fingers
3. Flies
4. Soil
5. Food

Water

Fingers

Faeces

Flies

Protected
Host

Soil

Food

Transmission of faecal-borne diseases

Sanitation barrier

Faeces

Water
S
a
n
it
a
ti
o
n
b
a
r
r
i
e
r

Fingers

Protected
Flies
Host

Soil

Food

Sanitation barrier :
Community Medicine aims at breaking the
disease cycle at vulnerable points :
Segregation of feaces, protection of water
supplies, protection of foods, personal
hygiene and control of flies.
The most effective step would be to
segregate the faeces and arrange for its
proper disposal.
The segregation of excreta by imposing a
barrier called the sanitation barrier.
Ex: sanitary latrine and disposal pit.

Methods of Excreta Disposal :


1. Unsewered areas
a) Service type ( conservancy system )
b) Non service type ( sanitary latrines )

1.Bore hole latrine


2. Dug well or pit latrine
3. Water seal type of latrines
i) P R A I type
ii) R C A type
iii) Sulabh shauchalaya
4. Septic tank
5. Aqua privy

c) Latrines suitable for camps and temporary use :


i) shallow trench latrine
ii) deep trench latrine
iii) pit latrine
iv) bore hole latrine
2. Sewered areas
a) primary treatment
screening
removal of grit
plain sedimentation
b) secondary treatment
trickling filters
activated sludge process
c) other methods
sea outfall
river outfall
oxidation ponds

Trench Latrine

RCA Latrine :
1. Location :- should not be located within 15 mt
(50 ft) from a source of a water supply.
2. Squatting Plate :3. PAN :- the length of the pan is 42.5 cms (17
inch)
4. Trap : it provides necessary water seal.
The water seal is the distance between the
level of water in the trap and the lowest point
in the concave upper surface of the trap ( 2
cms )
5. Connecting pipe
6. Dug well
7. Super structure

Septic tank:
It is water tight masonry tank into which household
sewage is admitted for treatment.
It is a satisfactory method of disposing excreta and
liquid wastes.
Design features :
Some are double chambered and some single
chambered.
1. Capacity : a capacity of 20-30 gallons or
2.5 to 5 c.ft per person is recommended for
household septic tanks
the minimum capacity of a septic tank should
be atleast 500 gallons

2. Length : the length is usually twice the breadth


3. Depth : usually 5-7 ft.
4. Liquid depth : only 1.2 mtr (4 ft)
5. Air space : they should be minimum air space of
30 cm(12in) between the level of water and the
undersurface of the cover.
6. In some septic tanks, the bottom is sloping
towards the inlet end. This facilitates the
retention of liquids.
7. Inlet & outlet : there is an inlet & outlet which are
submerged
8. Cover : concrete slab
9. Retention period : 24 hrs

Working of a septic tank :


The solids settle down in the tank, to form
sludge.
The lighter solids including grease and fat rise to
the surface to form scum.
Anaerobic digestion: the solids are attacked by
the anaerobic bacteria and fungi and are broken
down into simpler chemical compounds.
The liquids which passes out of the outlet pipe
from time to time is called the effluent.
It contains numerous bacteria, cysts, ova and
organic matter in solution.

Aerobic Oxidation :
The effluent from the outlet is allowed to
percolate into the sub soil.
There are millions of aerobic bacteria in the
upper layers of soil, which attack the organic
matter present in the effluent.
As a result the organic matter is oxidised into
stable and products i.e., nitrates, carbon
dioxide and water.
Together, these two stages
(anaerobic digestion and aerobic oxidation)
complete the purification of sewage.

Operation and Maintenance :


1. The use of soap water and disinfectants
such as phenol should be avoided as they
are injurious to the bacterial flora in the
septic tank.
2. Desludging :