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Lecture: 9 Elastic Optical Networks

Ajmal Muhammad, Robert Forchheimer

Lecture: 9 Elastic Optical Networks Ajmal Muhammad, Robert Forchheimer Information Coding Group ISY Department

Information Coding Group ISY Department

Outline

Motivation Elastic Optical Networking

Flexible spectrum grid, tunable transceiver, flexible OXC

Flexible Optical Nodes Routing and Spectrum Assignment Problem

Research Motivation

Emerging applications with a range of transport requirement Future applications with unknown requirements

Flexible and efficient optical networks to support existing, emerging and future applications

Courtesy: High performance ne lab., Bristol

Applications with Diverse Requirements

Media High-speed data 400G, 1Tb/s
Media
High-speed data
400G, 1Tb/s
Applications with Diverse Requirements Media High-speed data 400G, 1Tb/s Courtesy: High performance network lab., Bristol

Courtesy: High performance network lab., Bristol

Evolution of Transmission Capacity

Spectral Efficiency (SE) Improvement

Fixed optical amplifier bandwidth (~ 5 THz)

Per fiber capacity increase has been accomplished through boosting SE (bit rate, wavelength, symbol per bit, state of polarization)

Bit loading higher than that for DP-QPSK causes rapid increase in SNR penalty, and results in shorter optical reach

SE improvement is slowing down, meaning higher rate data need more spectrum

Optical amplifier bandwidth (~ 5 THz)

Spectral Efficiency (SE) Improvement Fixed optical amplifier bandwidth (~ 5 THz)  Per fiber capacity increase
 
TDM
 

TDM

 
   

WDM

TDM WDM Multi-level mod.
TDM WDM Multi-level mod.
TDM WDM Multi-level mod.
TDM WDM Multi-level mod.
TDM WDM Multi-level mod.
 
                       
 

Multi-level mod.

TDM WDM Multi-level mod.
TDM WDM Multi-level mod.
TDM WDM Multi-level mod.
TDM WDM Multi-level mod.
TDM WDM Multi-level mod.
 
TDM WDM Multi-level mod.
TDM WDM Multi-level mod.
TDM WDM Multi-level mod.
TDM WDM Multi-level mod.
TDM WDM Multi-level mod.

PDM

BPSK QPSK 1 DP-QPSK 10 DP-16QAM DP-64QAM 0.1 0.1 DP-256QAM @25 Gbaud DP-1024QAM 0.01 0.01 0
BPSK
QPSK
1
DP-QPSK
10
DP-16QAM
DP-64QAM
0.1
0.1
DP-256QAM
@25 Gbaud
DP-1024QAM
0.01
0.01
0
100200 300 400500 600
Relative optical reach with
constant energy per bit
Spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz)

Multiplexing technology evolution

Bit rate per channel (Gb/s)

Current Optical Networks :: Inflexible

Current Optical Networks :: Inflexible Super-wavelength Courtesy: High performance netwo lab., Bristol
Current Optical Networks :: Inflexible Super-wavelength Courtesy: High performance netwo lab., Bristol
Current Optical Networks :: Inflexible Super-wavelength Courtesy: High performance netwo lab., Bristol
Super-wavelength
Super-wavelength

Courtesy: High performance netwo lab., Bristol

Current Solution for Bandwidth-Intensive Applications

Optical virtual concatenation (OVC) for high capacity end-to-end connection (super- wavelength)

Demultiplex the demand to smaller ones such as 100 or 40 Gb/s, which can still fit in the fixed grid (Inverse multiplexing)

Several wavelengths are grouped and allocated end-to-end according to the application bandwidth requirements

Grouping occurs at the client layer without really affecting the network

Connection over several wavelengths is not switched as a single entity in network nodes

Elastic Optical Networking

The term elastic refers to three key properties:

The optical spectrum can be divided up flexibly

Elastic Optical Networking The term elastic refers to three key properties: The optical spectrum can be

Courtesy: Ori Gerstel, IEEE Comm. Mag. 20

Elastic Transceivers

The transceivers can generate elastic optical paths (EOPs); that is path with variable bit rates

Elastic Transceivers The transceivers can generate elastic optical paths (EOPs); that is path with variable bit
Elastic Transceivers The transceivers can generate elastic optical paths (EOPs); that is path with variable bit

Tunable transceiver

Courtesy: Steven Gringeri, IEEE Comm. M

Flexible Switching

The optical nodes (cross-connect) need to support a wide range of switching (i.e., varying from sub-wavelength to super-wavelength)

Flexible Switching The optical nodes (cross-connect) need to support a wide range of switching (i.e., varying

WDM Networks

Flexible Switching The optical nodes (cross-connect) need to support a wide range of switching (i.e., varying
Flexible Switching The optical nodes (cross-connect) need to support a wide range of switching (i.e., varying

EONs

Bandwidth Variable

Drivers for Developing the EONs

Support for 400 Gb/s, 1Tb/s and other high bit rate demands

Disparate bandwidth needs: properly size the spectrum for each demand based on its bit rate & the transmission distance

Tighter channel spacing: freeing up spectrum for other demands

Reach vs. spectral efficiency trade-off: bandwidth variable transmitter can adjust to a modulation format occupying less optical spectrum for short EOP and still perform error-free due to the reduced impairments

Dynamic networking: the optical layer can now response directly to variable bandwidth demands from the client layers

Elastic Optical Path Network:: Example

Conventional

design

Elastic optical path network

Path length

Bit rate

1,000 km 1,000 km 1,000 km 250 km 250 km
1,000 km 1,000 km 1,000 km
250 km
250 km

400 Gb/s 200 Gb/s 100 Gb/s

400 Gb/s 100 Gb/s

Fixed format, grid QPSK QPSK QPSK 16QAM 16QAM 200 Gb/s Adaptive modulation Elastic channel spacing
Fixed
format, grid
QPSK
QPSK
QPSK
16QAM
16QAM
200
Gb/s
Adaptive
modulation
Elastic channel
spacing

Outline

Motivation Elastic Optical Networking

Flexible spectrum grid, tunable transceiver, flexible OXC

Outline  Motivation  Elastic Optical Networking  Flexible spectrum grid, tunable transceiver, flexible OXC 

Flexible Optical Nodes

Routing and Spectrum Assignment Problem

Common Building Blocks for Flexible OXCs

Common Building Blocks for Flexible OXCs

Reconfigurable Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer (ROADM)

Wavelength selective switch Optical splitter
Wavelength
selective switch
Optical splitter

Add channels

Drop channels

Multi-Granular Optical Switching

FXC: Fiber switch BXC: Waveband switch WXC: Wavelength switch
FXC: Fiber switch
BXC: Waveband switch
WXC: Wavelength switch

BTF: Band to Fiber

Add channels

Drop channels

Architecture on Demand (AoD)

Courtesy: High performance netw lab., Bristol

MEMS switch is used to interconnected all the Input-output ports and switching devices

Architecture on Demand (AoD) Courtesy: High performance netw lab., Bristol MEMS switch is used to interconnected
Architecture on Demand (AoD) Courtesy: High performance netw lab., Bristol MEMS switch is used to interconnected

Optical backplane cross-connections for AoD OXCs

AoD Node

Aimed to develop an optical node that can adapt its architecture according to the traffic profile and support elastic allocation of resources

Flexible OXC Configuration

Backplane implemented with 96x96 3D-MEMS Flexibility to implement and test several switch architectures on-the-fly Switching time 20ms

Flexible OXC Configuration Backplane implemented with 96x96 3D-MEMS Flexibility to implement and test several switch architectures

Courtesy: High performance ne lab., Bristol

Outline

Motivation Elastic Optical Networking

Flexible spectrum grid, tunable transceiver, flexible OXC

Flexible Optical Nodes

Outline  Motivation  Elastic Optical Networking  Flexible spectrum grid, tunable transceiver, flexible OXC 

Routing and Spectrum Assignment Problem

Routing and Spectrum Assignment (RSA)

Routing and Spectrum Assignment (RSA) Spectrum variable (non-constant) connections, in contrast to standard WDM

Spectrum variable (non-constant) connections, in contrast to standard WDM

Routing and Spectrum Assignment (RSA) Spectrum variable (non-constant) connections, in contrast to standard WDM
Routing and Spectrum Assignment (RSA) Spectrum variable (non-constant) connections, in contrast to standard WDM
Routing and Spectrum Assignment (RSA) Spectrum variable (non-constant) connections, in contrast to standard WDM
Routing and Spectrum Assignment (RSA) Spectrum variable (non-constant) connections, in contrast to standard WDM
Routing and Spectrum Assignment (RSA) Spectrum variable (non-constant) connections, in contrast to standard WDM
Routing and Spectrum Assignment (RSA) Spectrum variable (non-constant) connections, in contrast to standard WDM
Routing and Spectrum Assignment (RSA) Spectrum variable (non-constant) connections, in contrast to standard WDM
Routing and Spectrum Assignment (RSA) Spectrum variable (non-constant) connections, in contrast to standard WDM
Routing and Spectrum Assignment (RSA) Spectrum variable (non-constant) connections, in contrast to standard WDM
Routing and Spectrum Assignment (RSA) Spectrum variable (non-constant) connections, in contrast to standard WDM

Planning Elastic/Flexgrid Networks

Input: Network topology, traffic matrix, physical layer models

Output: Routes and spectrum allocation RSA

(RMLSA include also the modulation-level used – 2 flexibility degree:

modulation and spectrum)

Minimize utilized spectrum and/or number of transponders, and/or…

Satisfy physical layer constraints

 0 1 2 1 0  1 0 1 1 0    0
 0
1
2
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
 0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
2
2
1
0
1
0
0
2
1
1
1
Planning Elastic/Flexgrid Networks Input: Network topology, traffic matrix, physical layer models Output: Routes and spectrum allocation

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Planning Elastic/Flexgrid Networks Input: Network topology, traffic matrix, physical layer models Output: Routes and spectrum allocation

Examples

RSA
RSA

RMLSA

Courtesy: Ori Gerstel, IEEE Comm. Mag. 2012

Cost-Efficient Elastic Networks Planning Using AoD Nodes

Conventional ROADMs

AoD ROADMs

Cost-Efficient Elastic Networks Planning Using AoD Nodes Conventional ROADMs AoD ROADMs