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Organizing Data and Information

Chapter 5

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Principles and Learning Objectives
‡ The database approach to data management provides significant advantages over the traditional file-based approach.
± Define general data management concepts and terms, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of the database approach to data management. ± Name three database models and outline their basic features, advantages, and disadvantages.

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Principles and Learning Objectives
‡ A well-designed and well-managed database is an extremely valuable tool in supporting decision making.
± Identify the common functions performed by all database management systems and identify three popular end-user database management systems.

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Principles and Learning Objectives
‡ The number and types of database applications will continue to evolve and yield real business benefits
± Identify and briefly discuss current database applications.

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

The Hierarchy of Data

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Data Entities, Attributes, and Keys

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

The Traditional versus the Database Approach to Data Management

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

The Traditional Approach

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Traditional Approach
‡ Data redundancy ‡ Program-data dependence ‡ Data integrity

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Database Approach

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Advantages of the Database Approach

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Advantages of the Database Approach

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Disadvantages of the Database Approach

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Data Modeling & Database Models

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Data Modeling and Database Models
‡ Content - What data should be collected? ‡ Access - What data should be given to what users? ‡ Logical structure - How will the data be organized to make sense to a particular user? ‡ Physical organization - Where will the data actually be located?

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Data Modeling
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Enterprise data modeling Planned data redundancy Data model Entity-relationship diagrams

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Entity-Relationship (ER) Diagrams

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Data Models
‡ Hierarchical models ‡ Network models ‡ Relational models

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Hierarchical (Tree) Models

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Network Models

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Relational Models

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Relational Models

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Data Cleanup

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Database Management Systems (DBMSs)
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Provide a user view Create and modify the database Store and retrieve data Manipulate data Produce reports

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Creating and Modifying the Database

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Data Definition Language

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Creating and Modifying the Database

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Data Dictionary Benefits
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Reduced data redundancy Faster program development Easier data & information modification Increased data reliability

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Storing and Retrieving Data

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Structured Query Language

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Database Output

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Popular Database Management Systems

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Selecting a DBMS
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Database size Number of concurrent users Performance Integration Features Vendor Cost

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Database Management Systems

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Data Warehouses

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Comparison of OLTP and Data Warehousing

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Database Developments
‡ Data warehouses ‡ Data marts ‡ Data mining

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Data Mining

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Distributed Databases

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

On-Line Analytical Processing

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Open Database Connectivity (ODBC)

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Object-Relational Database Management Systems
‡ Stores objects ‡ Hypermedia ‡ Spatial data technology

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

Summary
‡ Data - one of the most valuable resources a firm possesses ‡ Entity - a generalized class of objects for which data is collected, stored, and maintained ‡ DBMS - a group of programs used as an interface between a database and application programs ‡ Traditional on-line transaction processing (OLTP) do not support the types of data analysis needed today
Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition