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Hildegard Peplau

Theory of Interpersonal Relations 

Regarded as ³ Mother of Psychiatric Nursing´  Born in September 1 1909 in Reading Pennsylvania  Began her career in nursing in 1931 as a graduate of the Pottstown Hospital School of Nursing in Pennsylvania.  BA in Interpersonal Psychology from Bennington College in 1943  MA in Psychiatric Nursing from Colombia University New York in 1947 

EdD in Curriculum Development in 1953  Professor Emeritus from Rutger¶s University  Certified in psychoanalysis by the William Alanson White Institute of New York City  Worked as executive director and president of ANA  Worked with WHO  Died in 1999

Psychodynamic nursing
Peplau defines psychodynamic nursing because her model evolves through this type of nursing.

Psychodynamic nursing facilitates: 
   Understanding of one¶s own behavior Helping others identify felt difficulties Nurse patient relationship as partners Application of human relations to problems at all levels of experience

Influences 
First nursing theory to borrow concepts from other disciplines
Freud, Maslow, Sullivan¶s Interpersonal Relationships theories and Psychoanalytical model

Purpose 
The purpose of this theory is to facilitate the development of problem solving skills, within the context of the interpersonal relationship between nurse and client using education and therapeutic interactions.  Peplau felt that nursing was a healing art and an interpersonal process between 2 or more people with a common goal

Structure
Four Phases of the Interpersonal Relationship  Orientation  Identification  Exploitation  Resolution

Orientation 
    NurseNurse-Client, strangers Felt need/Define problem Trust and Empowerment Encourage active participation Nurse determines what help client needs

Identification 
Identify problems to be worked on during the relationship  Clarify perceptions and expectations  Level of dependence/independence  Selection of professional assistance  Capability to deal with identified problems

Exploitation 
Client utilizes all available resources  Plan is implemented and evaluated  Continued assessment and assisting new needs of client

Resolution 
Client needs met  Mutual termination of relationship  Goal, support systems, problem prevention  Independence

Nursing Roles 
     Stranger Teacher Resource person Counselor Leader Advocate

Stranger
Receives the client the same way one meets a stranger in other life situations; provides an accepting climate that builds trust.

Teacher
Gives instructions and provides training; involves analysis and synthesis of the learner's experience.

Resource person
Answers questions, interprets clinical treatment data, gives information.

Counselor
Helps client understand and integrate the meaning of current life circumstances; provides guidance and encouragement to make changes.

Leader
Helps client assume maximum responsibility for meeting treatment goals in a mutually satisfying way.

Advocate
Helps client clarify domains of dependence, interdependence, and independence and acts on clients behalf as advocate.

Major Concepts Defined in ajor Peplau's Model 
Nursing - Nursing described as a significant, therapeutic, interpersonal process.  Person - Peplau defines person in terms of man. Man is an organism that lives in an unstable equilibrium.  Health - Forward movement of the personality  Illness - Symptoms from anxiety-bound energy anxiety Environment - Fluid context of the nurse-client nurserelationship