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LEXUS MODLE AND FORD MUSTANG GT

PROCESSES OF CAR DEGINE

By Ravi Kant tiwari

CONTENTS OF SLIDE 
SKETCHING OF CAR  MODELING  AERODYNAMIC CONSIDERATIONS  MATERIAL  MANUFACTURING PROCESSES  SAFTY CONSIDERATIONS

By Ravi Kant tiwari

SKETCHING OF CAR

The earliest stage of the design process is the creation of initial concept sketches. The sketches are a relatively quick way to visualise ideas, themes and styles. In a typical design studio, a team of designers may be asked to submit initial ideas for a vehicle which will subsequently be narrowed down and further developed. Often, a dozen or so initial ideas will be evaluated, with further development of two or three before a final solution is chosen. At each stage, designers whose work is not chosen will be redeployed to assist in the development of the chosen ideas or posted to another project. Typically, one team is responsible for the interior whilst another takes charge of the exterior. By Ravi Kant tiwari 

The interior rendering above is a hand-drawn, highly finished view of the

dashboard of the Avantime. Following initial ideas, after resolving the view, proportions and perspective a rendering like this is produced. It is drawn lightly in pencil before colour is added using markers. This illustration uses mainly light yellows and cool greys. The metallic effect is achieved by banding white with very light blues. Additional light, shade and line definition is added with coloured pencil. Light mapping lines (as visible vertically on the driver's door) are sometimes used to help illustrate changes in form in addition to colour and tone.

By Ravi Kant tiwari

CAD Rendering: Virtual Photography with ART VPS 

At the sharp end of automotive design, manufacturers are constantly seeking ways to improve the virtual visualisation of their products. CAD rendering allows designers to evaluate their work and assists in the decisionmaking processes of new vehicle development. In addition to the purely inhouse benefits, virtual visualisation can be used to place a design in front of potential customers before production engineering and tooling take place. Despite the benefits of the system, CAD rendering has often been unable to convey the reality of a design convincingly. ART VPS, based in Cambridge in the UK, have devised a highly successful solution with their 'Virtual Photography' process.
By Ravi Kant tiwari

THE VIRTUAL PHOTOGRAPHY PROCESS B PROCESS

By Ravi Kant tiwari

AERODNAMICS CONSIDERATION 

Aerodynamics is a highly refined science that vies for position with other key vehicle design considerations such as styling and ergonomics. It's importance with respect to the operating efficiencies of a vehicle is undisputed but manufacturers must steer a balanced path between the push an pull of the many other aspects of a car necessary to sell it to the consumer. Aerodynamics started life as much as an art as a science. Early experiments used fish as the inspiration. Their sleek form was considered important to facilitate fast movement, but the precise details were not yet understood and developments were largely based on trial and error. It was as a result of this approach that the 'teardrop' form was conceived
By Ravi Kant tiwari

Volumes Different laws apply depending upon how many vehicles are being manufactured. This is designed to allow smaller companies and individuals to produce vehicles without the heavy burden of research and development necessary to meet the full requirements of legislation for mass produced vehicles. Limits and thresholds for production figures will be outlined by the country the vehicles are destined for. Low volume producers usually benefit from relaxed requirements for safety, pollution and noise performance. Additionally, low volume sports car manufacturers can often bypass insurance company requirements on low-speed bumper performance. Importing Regardless of volume, most countries impose restrictions on vehicle imports. This is primarily to ensure that vehicles conform to local safety standards but has been used in the past as a way to hinder foreign manufacturers. Look out for: bumper regulations; lighting requirements; units (e.g. mph vs. km/h); pollution and noise regs. Lighting Vehicles require headlights, tail-lights, reverse lights and side markers/indicators. Additionally, rear fog lights are required in Europe and some other countries. Look out for: height restrictions; colour restrictions; brightness and reflectivity requirements; minimum surface areas; proximity and similarity to other lights; location restrictions. Safety Contrary to popular belief, the most prominent (consumer) safety features are often not legally required. Generally, vehicles will need to be fitted with passenger safety belts, bumpers (meeting minimum standards) and some other basic features but most safety legislation relates to the performance of components and materials in impact, fire and rescue situations. Look out for: head clearance in impact, bumper movement, door locks, air bags (especially US), glass and other material choice, pedal box and steering wheel performance in impact. These are pointers, for absolutely correct legislation you must consult the relevant authority. Pollution Look out for: CO2 emission levels; catalytic converter requirements; restrictions on toxic materials used in components; recycling requirements. Additionally, there will be legislation covering pollution in manufacturing processes.
By Ravi Kant tiwari

SAFTY PRINCIPAL 

There are two main routes to improving vehicle safety. Firstly, there is prevention - keeping people, objects and vehicles away from each other and out of harm's way. This is achieved by combining many hundreds of factors such as driver education, design of pedestrian crossings and requirements for vehicle performance and maintenance. It is this approach that brought about much of the earlier vehicle legislation that addresses lighting, turning indicators and basic demands on components such as windscreens, mirrors and tyres. Nils Bohlin of Volvo invented the modern seat belt in 1959. This was the three point seat belt and made such a difference to crash safety that it was included as a basic requirement to install belts in cars in some of the earliest European legislation - although compulsory use came much later. In effect, this was the first in a long line of developments from Volvo to improve passenger safety; an aspect of design that most other manufacturers cared little for until the 1990s. 

By Ravi Kant tiwari 

 

 



Visibility Preventive safety is about designing a vehicle that can be easily seen by other road users, a vehicle that is easy to see out of and a vehicle that presents a driver with all the information they require and no more. Good visibility is key to identifying problems quickly and making the correct decision in good time. Poor visibility due to weather leads to dramatic increases in the rates and severity of road accidents. Energy Transfer and Absorption Reactive safety is about minimising damage and injury once an accident becomes unavoidable; this means designing structures and devices that absorb the energy of impact rather than transfer it to a person or object in a dangerous and uncontrollable way. Vehicle Control and Handling ABS, or anti-locking brakes, are an example of control assistance that aids the safe performance of a vehicle. This and other systems such as traction and stability control can enable safer driving by compensating for limits in human ability. They make a substantial difference when a vehicle is being used to its maximum but can lead to a reliance or complacency by drivers which can in turn negate the safety benefits. Manufacturers recognise that there is a point at which safety features make a driver feel so at ease that their driving deteriorates and becomes more dangerous
By Ravi Kant tiwari 



Passenger Safety Passenger safety (including drivers) in vehicles is by far the most considered field of automotive safety. Although the focus is only now falling on pedestrian safety, passenger safety has been at the top of the agenda since the World's various automotive regulatory bodies were founded. The result of decades of concentrated effort is a good public understanding of simple concepts such as crash cages and crumple zones whilst the industry has developed specialists in almost all related technical areas. In this section, we look at the key safety considerations when designing a vehicle, as well as more technical aspects affecting systems and components. The Crash Cage The Crumple Zone Anti-Locking Braking Systems (ABS) Pedal Boxes and Leg Impact Considerations Retracting Steering Wheel The Seat Belt Fire and Combustible Materials Anti-submarine Seats The Air Bag Headrests and Whiplash Glass
By Ravi Kant tiwari 

          

MODELING OF CAR 

Developing a vehicle is an arduous process of design and evaluation,

trial and error - constant improvement and adaptation. Initial design concepts go through a range of stages to bring them closer to realisation and modelling is key to evaluating a design at each stage.  Modelling can take several forms. Traditionally, clay models have been used at various scales to help understand and resolve the form and proportions of a vehicle. To varying degrees, this has been supplemented, sometimes even replaced, by CAD modelling. Whilst clay is still a medium used to evaluate predominantly visual characteristics, CAD systems can additionally help evaluate other factors such as aerodynamics, impact scenarios and other physical considerations
By Ravi Kant tiwari

TYPES OF MODELING 


Clay Modelling Clay modelling is one of the most established 3D visualisation techniques used in the automotive industry. This section looks in detail at clay modelling - the process, history, current practices. CAD Modelling Computers are now used to accelerate virtually every aspect of vehicle development. Computer aided design (CAD) modelling allows designers and engineers to resolve increasingly large amounts of a vehicle before even the first model is made. This section covers the principles and technology behind computer aided design. Additional Modelling Processes There are other processes involved in modelling, and sometimes entirely different approaches. We take a look at some of the more significant variants in this section. 

 



By Ravi Kant tiwari

MATERIAL USED 

This section looks at some of the key materials that are and can be used in the production of road going vehicles. Polymers Elastomers Fibres Plastics Metals Composites Carbon fibre General Materials In Brief Recycling (Design for) Biodegrading
By Ravi Kant tiwari 

         

MANUFACTURING PROFESSES 


Automotive Manufacturing Processes Modern manufacturing and assembly processes, whilst highly refined and advanced, are still based in principle on the production-line pioneered by Ford for the Model T in the early years of vehicle mass production. Contemporary systems are fast, precise and now not only actuated by robots, they are increasingly setup and configured by computer. Pressing 

Body-in-White Assembly (BIW) Following delivery of parts from the press shop the vehicle is assembled from the inside-out. - Assembly of various modules, typically joined by cramping and spot welding. Painting Electro-coating Drying Base coat Top coat Drying unit Conveyor to assembly Final Assembly Trim (including interior modules) Powertrain End of line detail assembly Testing and inspection Resources World Auto Steel - covering all aspects of car production with steel   

 

By Ravi Kant tiwari