You are on page 1of 36

Chapter

FOUR

Personality and Values

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

What Is Personality?
Personality
The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others, measurable traits a person exhibits

Personality Personality Traits (lakshan)
Enduring characteristics that describe an individual¶s behavior

Determinants
‡ Heredity ‡ Environment ‡ Situation

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types

Personality Types
‡ Extroverted vs. Introverted (E or I) ‡ Sensing vs. Intuitive (S or N) ‡ Thinking vs. Feeling (T or F) ‡ Judging vs. Perceiving (P or J)

Score is a combination of all four (e.g., ENTJ)
© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Meyers-Briggs (cont¶d)
A Meyers-Briggs Score
± Can be a valuable too for self-awareness and career guidance

BUT
± Should not be used as a selection tool because it has not been related to job performance!

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

The Big Five Model of Personality Dimensions
Extroversion
Sociable, gregarious, and assertive

Agreeableness
Good-natured, cooperative, and trusting

Conscientiousness
Responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized

Emotional Stability
Calm, self-confident, secure under stress (positive), versus nervous, depressed, and insecure under stress (negative)

Openness to Experience
Curious, imaginative, artistic, and sensitive
© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Measuring Personality
Personality Is Measured by: 

Self-Report Surveys  Observer-Rating Surveys  Projective Measures
± Rorschach Inkblot Test ± Thematic Apperception Test

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB 
Core Self-Evaluation
± Self-Esteem ± Locus of Control 

Machiavellianism  Narcissism  Self-Monitoring  Risk Taking  Type A vs. Type B Personality  Proactive Personality
© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Core Self-Evaluation: Two Main Components
Self-Esteem
Individuals¶ degree of liking or disliking themselves

Locus of Control
The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate
‡Internals (Internal locus of control) Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them ‡Externals (External locus of control) Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance
© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Machiavellianism
Machiavellianism (Mach)
Degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means

Conditions Favoring High Machs
‡ Direct interaction with others ‡ Minimal rules and regulations ‡ Emotions distract for others

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Narcissism
A Narcissistic Person
‡ Has grandiose sense of self-importance ‡ Requires excessive admiration ‡ Has a sense of entitlement ‡ Is arrogant ‡ Tends to be rated as less effective

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Self-Monitoring
Self-Monitoring
A personality trait that measures an individual¶s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors

High Self-Monitors
‡ Receive better performance ratings ‡ Likely to emerge as leaders ‡ Show less commitment to their organizations

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Risk-Taking 
High Risk-Taking Managers
± Make quicker decisions ± Use less information to make decisions ± Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organizations 

Low Risk-Taking Managers
± Are slower to make decisions ± Require more information before making decisions ± Exist in larger organizations with stable environments 

Risk Propensity
± Aligning managers¶ risk-taking propensity to job requirements should be beneficial to organizations
© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Personality Types
Type As
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly Feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place Strive to think or do two or more things at once Cannot cope with leisure time Are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire

Type Bs
1. 2. 3. 4.

Never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience Feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments Play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost Can relax without guilt

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Personality Types
Proactive Personality
Identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action, and perseveres until meaningful change occurs Creates positive change in the environment, regardless or even in spite of constraints or obstacles

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter Check-up: Personality
Which of the following is not a typical personality trait considered to be organizationally relevant?
Locus of control Self-monitoring Self-enhancing Self esteem Machiavellianism Discuss with your neighbor how each of the three traits above would influence a college instructor¶s behavior, and where you think your teacher falls with respect to each of them.
© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter Check-up: Personality
Alison arrives to class and realizes that she¶s forgotten her homework to turn in. She says ³Oh man, it¶s just not my lucky day today.´ Alison has ______________.

Alison has a high external locus of control. Alison believes that things outside of her control determine what happens.

If Alison works on a team with you, and you have a very high internal locus of control, what kinds of discussions do you think the two of you might have? Discuss with a friend.
© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter Check-up: Personality
Julia is known for being a go-getter. She never leaves a task incomplete, and is involved in a number of activities. Moreover, she¶s at the top of her class. She¶s so busy that sometimes, she forgets to stop and eat lunch. Julia can be easily characterized as someone that has/is a Type ____ Personality.

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

A

Chapter Check-up: Personality
Julia is also likely to not be very: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Happy? Fun? Creative? Stressed?

In general, Type As are rarely creative because they generally don¶t allocate the necessary time for new solution development; they usually rely on past experiences to solve problems in order to be speedy.

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Values 
Definition: Mode of conduct or end state is personally or socially preferable (i.e., what is right and good)
± Terminal Values
‡ Desirable end states

± Instrumental Values
‡ The ways/means for achieving one¶s terminal values 

Value System: A hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual¶s values in terms of their intensity Note: Values vary by cohort

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Importance of Values 
Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and behaviors of individuals and cultures  Influence our perception of the world around us  Represent interpretations of ³right´ and ³wrong´  Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over others

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Types of Values²Rokeach Value Survey
Terminal Values
Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime

Instrumental Values
Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one¶s terminal values

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Values in the Rokeach Survey

Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973).

E X H I B I T 4-3 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Values in the Rokeach Survey (cont¶d)

Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973).

E X H I B I T 4-3 (cont¶d) © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Mean Value Rankings of Executives, Union Members, and Activists
Source: Based on W. C. Frederick and J. Weber, ³The Values of Corporate Managers and Their Critics: An Empirical Description and Normative Implications,´ in W. C. Frederick and L. E. Preston (eds.) Business Ethics: Research Issues and Empirical Studies (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1990), pp. 123±44.

E X H I B I T 4-4 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Values, Loyalty, and Ethical Behavior

Ethical Values and Behaviors of Leaders

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Ethical Climate in the Organization

Values Across Cultures: Hofstede¶s Framework 
    Power Distance Individualism vs. Collectivism Masculinity vs. Femininity Uncertainty Avoidance Long-term and Short-term Orientation

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Hofstede¶s Framework for Assessing Cultures
Power Distance
The extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally. Low distance: Relatively equal power between those with status/wealth and those without status/wealth High distance: Extremely unequal power distribution between those with status/wealth and those without status/wealth

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Hofstede¶s Framework (cont¶d)
Individualism
The degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than a member of groups
vs.

Collectivism
A tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Hofstede¶s Framework (cont¶d)
Masculinity
The extent to which the society values work roles of achievement, power, and control, and where assertiveness and materialism are also valued
vs.

Femininity
The extent to which there is little differentiation between roles for men and women

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Hofstede¶s Framework (cont¶d)
Uncertainty Avoidance
The extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them
‡High Uncertainty Avoidance: Society does not like ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them.

‡Low Uncertainty Avoidance: Society does not mind ambiguous situations and embraces them.
© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Hofstede¶s Framework (cont¶d)
Long-term Orientation
A national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence
vs.

Short-term Orientation
A national culture attribute that emphasizes the present and the here and now

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Achieving Person-Job Fit
Personality-Job Fit Theory (Holland)
Identifies six personality types and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnover

Personality Types
‡ Realistic ‡ Investigative ‡ Social ‡ Conventional ‡ Enterprising ‡ Artistic

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Holland¶s Typology of Personality and Congruent Occupations

E X H I B I T 4±8 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Relationships Among Occupational Personality Types

Source: Reprinted by special permission of the publisher, Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., from Making Vocational Choices, copyright 1973, 1985, 1992 by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. All rights reserved.

E X H I B I T 4±9

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Organizational Culture Profile (OCP) 
Useful for determining person-organization fit  Survey that forces choices/rankings of one¶s personal values  Helpful for identifying most important values to look for in an organization (in efforts to create a good fit)

© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter Check-up: Values
In Country J most of the top management team meets employees at the local bar for a beer on Fridays, and there are no reserved parking spaces. Everyone is on a first name basis with one another. Country J, according to Hofstede¶s Framework, is probably low on what dimension? ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Collectivism Lon-term Orientation Uncertainty Avoidance Power Distance

How would a college or university in Country J differ from your college or university? Identify 3 differences and discuss with a neighbor.
© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.