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Submitted by: AJAY KATNAURI 06608 B.ARCH. (8TH SEM.)

Buckling is a mode of failure generally resulting from structural instability due to compressive action on the structural member or element involved. Examples: Overload metal building columns Compressive members in bridges Roof trusses Hull of submarine Any thin walled torque tube Thin web of an I-beam

y y y y y y



Nature of buckling:

It results from a state of unstable equilibrium For example: buckling of a long column is not caused by the failure of material of the column, but by the determination of what was a stable state of equilibrium to an unstable one.


Mechanism of buckling: y We can understand mechanism of buckling with the help of following diagrams:

Critical buckling load: The lowest load that causes buckling is called critical buckling load. It is given as: T 2 EI PCrit ! 2 L This equation is also known as Euler¶s Formula. PCrit = maximum or critical load E = modulus of elasticity I = area moment of inertia L = unsupported length of column

FCr Since f = P/A, critical buckling stress

T 2 EI ! AL2 T 2E ! KL / r 2


E = modulus of elasticity
I = area moment of inertia L = unsupported length of column K = common effective length factor

y y y y

The value of K depends on the conditions of end support of the column, as follows: For both ends pinned, K = 1.0. For both ends fixed, K = 0.50. For one end fixed and the other end pinned, K = 0.699... For one end fixed and the other end free to move laterally, K = 2.0.

Three important facts about critical load: 1. Elasticity and not compressive strength of the materials of the column determines the critical load. 2. The critical load is directly proportional to the second moment of inertia of the cross section. 3. The boundary conditions determine the mode of bending and the distance between inflection points on the deflected column

Self-buckling of columns: A free-standing, vertical column of circular cross-section will buckle under its own weight if its height exceeds a certain critical height:

E = Young's modulus of elasticity = density r = radius of column g = acceleration due to gravity

Buckling Load Factor: y The buckling load factor (BLF) is an indicator of the factor of safety against buckling or the ratio of the buckling loads to the currently applied loads. y Interpretation of the Buckling Load Factor (BLF)
BLF value Buckling Status Remarks The applied loads exceed the estimated critical loads. Buckling will occur. The applied loads are exactly equal to the critical loads. Buckling is expected. Buckling is predicted if you reverse the load directions. Buckling is expected if you reverse the load directions. The applied loads are less than the estimated critical loads. 0 < BLF < 1 Buckling predicted

BLF = 1

Buckling predicted

-1 < BLF < 0 -1 < BLF < 0 1 < BLF

Buckling possible

Buckling possible

Buckling not predicted



Lateral-torsional buckling: When a simple beam is loaded in flexure, the top side is in compression, and the bottom side is in tension. If the beam is not supported in the lateral direction (i.e., perpendicular to the plane of bending), and the flexural load increases to a critical limit, the beam will fail due to lateral buckling of the compression flange. In wide-flange sections, if the compression flange buckles laterally, the cross section will also twist in torsion, resulting in a failure mode known as lateral-torsional buckling.