Exploring Solar Energy

Review: Atomic Structure



Three particles
Nucleus
Electrostatic Force
Strong nuclear force

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Radiant Energy

Nuclear Fusion

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Northern Hemisphere Seasons

Variances in Solar Radiation

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Average Daily Solar Insolation Per Month © The NEED Proje .

Major Uses of Solar Energy o Daylight o Drying Agricultural Products o Space Heating o Water Heating o Generating Electrical Power oConcentrating Solar Power (CSP) oPhotovoltaics © The NEED Proje .

Daylighting © The NEED Proje .

Daylighting © The NEED Proje .

Drying Agricultural Products © The NEED Proje .

Space Heating Through Passive Solar © The NEED Proje .

Passive Solar © The NEED Proje .

Active Solar Heating © The NEED Proje .

Solar Collector  Glass on outside  Absorbent on inside  Circulating Fluid © The NEED Proje .

cfm? The NEED Proje © .7 http://www.gov/totalenergy/data/annual/showtext.Solar Thermal Collector Uses Source: Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Review Figure 10.eia.

Generating Electrical Power  Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) • Trough systems • Power towers  Heat exchanger plus steam turbine  Photovoltaics • Small-scale (buildings) kW production • Large-scale (utilities) MW production  Photoelectric effect © The NEED Proje .

Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) .

Power Tower © The NEED Proje .

How a Power Tower Works © The NEED Proje .

Ivanpah.000 garage door-sized mirrors and 173.500 heliostats. Mojave Desert  The United States houses the largest CSP plant in the Mojave Desert. Image courtesy of NRG Energy © The NEED Proje . It uses 347.  Ivanpah is operated by NRG.

Photovoltaics © The NEED Proje .

© The NEED Proje .

PV Cell © The NEED Proje .

N-type © The NEED Proje .

P-type © The NEED Proje .

P-N Junction © The NEED Proje .

© The NEED Proje .

Conversion Efficiency © The NEED Proje .

PV Array Components  PV Cells  Modules  Arrays © The NEED Proje .

PV System Components © The NEED Proje .

Net Metering © The NEED Proje .

Net Metering Participation EIA: Electric Power Annual 2012 © The NEED Proje .

PV Array Fields © The NEED Proje .

Remote PV Power © The NEED Proje .

Worldwide PV Installed Capacity .

Top Countries for Installed PV Capacity US Department of Energy. NREL 2013 Renewable Energy Data Book © The NEED Proje .

Global Regional PV Installations per Inhabitant Source: European Photovoltaic Industry © The NEED Proje .

Projected Global Photovoltaic Growth 450 400 350 300 GW Installed Capacity 250 200 150 100 50 0 2015 2020E © The NEED Proje .

Advantages of Solar Energy • Clean • Sustainable • Free • Provide electricity to remote places © The NEED Proje .

Disadvantages of Solar Energy  Less efficient and costly equipment  Part Time  Reliability Depends On Location  Environmental Impact of PV Cell Production © The NEED Proje .

Classroom Photovoltaics  Experiments help students understand the conditions needed for optimal power production  Focus of secondary-level solar curriculum  Use digital multimeters © The NEED Proje .

DC Current Scale © The NEED Proje . Indicates voltage from alternating current. Do not use. Do not use.Using a Digital Multimeter DC Voltage Scale Resistance Scale.

Wiring the PV Modules Series Parallel © The NEED Proje .

org 1-800-875-5029 Energy Information Administration U.org info@need. Department of Energy www.For More Information The NEED Project www.need.gov .eia.S.

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.org/Youth-Awards for more application and program information. Students create a digital project to submit for judging. digital projects should be uploaded to the online submission site. Want more info? Check out www. Does your school have student leaders who extend these activities into their communities? To recognize outstanding achievement and reward student leadership. In April. previous winners. and keep a record of their activities. What’s involved? Students and teachers set goals and objectives. The NEED Project conducts the National Youth Awards Program for Energy Achievement.NEED. and photos of past events.All NEED schools have outstanding classroom-based programs in which students learn about energy.