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Eng./ Rashid bin Sulaiman Al Lamki
March 2016

 Industrialised countries need large amounts Int on i t uc d ro s? e ng e l y al g h r C ne e f o s m e bl o r s P e c ur o es r gy r Ene ds n re T g n i is m Pro ion s clu n Co of energy.  These fossil fuels formed millions of years ago.  Most of this energy comes form fossil fuels which are burnt in power stations. factories.  Once the fossil fuels have been used up there will be no more to replace them . and are non-renewable. homes and vehicles.

Desire of maintaining low-carbon emissions. 2. 3. New promising trends . The problem of political will and policies for the alternative energy resources. Dependence on fossil fuels Int on i t uc d ro s? e ng e y l g al r h C ne e of s m e l b o s r e P c ur o es r y g r e En ds n re T ng i s i m o Pr ion s clu n Co vs.1.

Energy Problems Int on i t uc d ro s? e ng e l y g al r h C ne e of s m e l b o s r e P c ur o es r y g r e En ds n re T ng i s i m o Pr io n s lu c n Co The Environmental Dimension Transport Transport Use Use Disposal Disposal oil spills oil spills Greenhouse gas Greenhouse gas effects effects Radioactive wastes .

Energy Problems The Environmental Dimension Int on i t uc d ro s? e ng e l y g al r h C ne e of s m e l b o s r e P c ur o es r y g r e En ds n re T ng i s i m o Pr io n s lu c n Co Cumulative CO2 Emission: Top 10 Countries in 2007 .

Energy Problems on i t uc d ro e? g n lle a ch e th s i at y h g r W ne Int en f so m le b o s e Pr c ur o es r y g r e s En d n re T ng i s i m o Pr ion s clu n Co Social Conveniences Economic Dimension Industrial economy National Security Dimension Vulnerability among world’s leading oil consumers Impact 1973 OPEC embargos .

 Health – water around the mines  Disposal of byproducts  “Clean coal:” technology = Carbon sequestration . CO2  Heating emissions  Cooking  Mining impacts Industry  Safety. Nox.Coal Int on i t uc d ro s? e ng e l y g al r h C ne e of s m e l b o r es P c r u o s re y rg e En ds n re T ng i s i m o Pr n o i lus c n Co Issues  Cost  safety  Diverts resources Environmental impacts Advantage s Uses high cost of cheap coal  abundant  Air pollution  cheap Electricity  SO2.

Natural Gas on i t uc d ro e? g n lle a ch e th s i at y h g r W ne Int en f so m le b o ve es i t Pr a rc n r u e o Alt res y g r e ds n En re T ng i s i m o Pr n o i lus c n Co Environmental impacts  Pipeline construction and leaks  Emissions of greenhouse gas  Flares Advantages  Cleanest burning of all fossil fuels  Most efficient  World production and reserves continue to rise  Known reserves: 60 year supply at current use rates .

(1979) 2.Chernobyl (1989) Uses About 5% global energy consumption. .Nuclear Power on i t uc d ro e? g n lle a ch e th s i at y h g r W ne Int en f so m le b o s e Pr c ur o es r y g r e En ds n re T ng i s i m o Pr ion s clu n Co Issues Environmental impacts Problems in its development Does not emit NOx. SO2. Decline in public acceptance  Nuclear Waste High cost Liability (Insurance) CO2 Accidents: 1-Three Mile Island plant.

NOx.Oil on i t uc d ro e? g n lle a ch e th s i at y h g r W ne Int n e f so m le b s o e c Pr ur o s re y rg e ds En n re T ng i s i m o Pr ion s clu n Co % Global world production 25% 20% Saudi Arabia 15% UAE 10% Kuwait Iraq Iran Venezuela USA 5% Mexico 0% Oil production % Issues almost assured because of distributional conflicts – e.g. O3 Oil spills Accidents: Exxon Valdez [1989] . Niger Delta Oil Environmental impacts Gas flaring Pipeline leaks CO2 emissions Air pollution: SO2.

schools. and other community needs. Wast Waste e geothermal geothermal Wind Wind Tidal Tidal Hydrogen Hydrogen biomass biomass s? e ng e l y g al r h C ne e of s m e l b o s r e P c ur o es r y g r e En ds n re T ng i s i m Pro ion s clu n Co solar solar PV PV on i t uc d ro Hydropower Hydropower Int Renewable Sources Sectors • agriculture • Small industry • Homes. . countries .Services • • • • Electricity Heat Motive power Water pumping for millions in dev.

Sources of Energy Int on i t uc d ro s? e ng e l y g al r h C ne e of s m e l b o es r c P r ou s e r y erg n E ds n re T g n i is m Pro ion s clu n Co Renewable Energy in Developing Countries %% 7040 % hot 45 water existing renewable power existing solar capacity capacity bio-fuels production Renewable Energy Promotion # countries 23 37 developed and transition countries developing countries .

Poland.Policies to Promote Renewable Energy (Most common policies) Feed-in law Renewable portfolio standards (RPS) renewable obligations quota United States. Sweden. . Australia. producers guaranteed sale to electric network s? e ng e l y g al r h C ne e of s m e l b o es r c P r ou s e r y erg n E ds n re T ng i s i m o Pr ion s clu n Co a % of generation sold or capacity providedinstalled is by renewable energy Int on i t uc d ro 37 countries enacted since 2002. China. Italy. India. Canada. and the United Kingdom. Japan.

Cost competitive .Wind I u d o ntr on i t c s? e ng e y l g al r h C ne e of s m e l b o s r e P c ur o es r y g r e En ds n re T ng i s i m o Pr ion s clu n Co Fastest growing world’s renewable energy resource 28 % worldwide in 2007.No air emissions . Europe leads world in installed capacity Issues and Impacts in Wind power .Impact on birds: mountain ridges .

Used in Developing Countries at small-scale power and heat production from agricultural waste is common. Brazil. It provides substantial shares (5–50 percent) of district heating fuel. Denmark. The use of Corn . The use of bagasse (sugar cane after juice extraction) in countries with large sugar industry [Australia. Cuba. Sweden and the Baltic countries . Finland. the Philippines. China.Biofuels: Ethanol and Biodiesel Int on i t uc d ro s? e ng e l y g al r h C ne e of s em l b o r es c P r u o s re y rg e En ds n re T ng i s i m o Pr ion s clu n Co Used for Power and heating Expanding in Austria. for example from rice or coconut husks. and Thailand]. Colombia. India.

Criticism/Fears of Biofuels Long-term effects on agriculture and the Int on i t uc d ro s? e ng e l y g al r h C ne e of s m e l b s o e r c P ur o es r rgy e En ds n re T ng i s i m o Pr ion s clu n Co environment. Process of producing biofuels : - Cultivation - Fertilization - Harvesting - transportation) could introduce parallel carbon emissions. .

Developing Asian nations lead emerging markets in clean energy investment Solar attracts the most investment in emerging markets Solar accounts for more than half of clean energy additions in emerging markets Energy poverty is driving attention and resources to emerging economies.Promising trends Clean energy investment in emerging economies is Int on i t uc d ro s? e ng e l y g al r h C ne e of s m e l b s o r e c P ur o s re y rg e En ds n re T g n i is m Pro ion s clu n Co small but growing. Growth of future energy demand will be greatest in developing countries. Renewable energy projected to supply most new power capacity worldwide through 2030 . Developing countries account for two-thirds of demand growth to 2030 .

Promising trends Int on i t uc d ro s? e ng e l y g al r h C ne e of s m e l b s o r e c P ur o s re y rg e En ds n re T g n i is m Pro ion s clu n Co .

for knowledge is Int on i t uc d ro s? e ng e l y g al r h C ne e of s em l b es o c r r P u o s re y erg n E ds n re T ng i s i m o Pr limited. What policies are needed to conserve energy and advance renewable energy? ion s clu Question of Political will and the right policies n Co The future is ours. air pollution. we'll need to continue to use fossil fuels and nuclear energy until new. . geothermal. cleaner technologies can replace them. wave power and hydrogen. Albert Einstein All energy sources have an impact on the environment. whereas imagination embraces the entire world – stimulating progress. Concerns about the greenhouse effect and global warming. wind. giving birth to evolution. and energy security have led to increasing interest and more development in renewable energy sources such as solar.Conclusion Imagination is more important than knowledge. but we need energy to get there.