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Energy
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Eng./ Rashid bin Sulaiman Al Lamki
March 2016

homes and vehicles. and are non-renewable.  These fossil fuels formed millions of years ago.  Once the fossil fuels have been used up there will be no more to replace them . Industrialised countries need large amounts Int on i t uc d ro s? e ng e l y al g h r C ne e f o s m e bl o r s P e c ur o es r gy r Ene ds n re T g n i is m Pro ion s clu n Co of energy. factories.  Most of this energy comes form fossil fuels which are burnt in power stations.

New promising trends .1. 3. The problem of political will and policies for the alternative energy resources. Desire of maintaining low-carbon emissions. Dependence on fossil fuels Int on i t uc d ro s? e ng e y l g al r h C ne e of s m e l b o s r e P c ur o es r y g r e En ds n re T ng i s i m o Pr ion s clu n Co vs. 2.

Energy Problems Int on i t uc d ro s? e ng e l y g al r h C ne e of s m e l b o s r e P c ur o es r y g r e En ds n re T ng i s i m o Pr io n s lu c n Co The Environmental Dimension Transport Transport Use Use Disposal Disposal oil spills oil spills Greenhouse gas Greenhouse gas effects effects Radioactive wastes .

Energy Problems The Environmental Dimension Int on i t uc d ro s? e ng e l y g al r h C ne e of s m e l b o s r e P c ur o es r y g r e En ds n re T ng i s i m o Pr io n s lu c n Co Cumulative CO2 Emission: Top 10 Countries in 2007 .

Energy Problems on i t uc d ro e? g n lle a ch e th s i at y h g r W ne Int en f so m le b o s e Pr c ur o es r y g r e s En d n re T ng i s i m o Pr ion s clu n Co Social Conveniences Economic Dimension Industrial economy National Security Dimension Vulnerability among world’s leading oil consumers Impact 1973 OPEC embargos .

Nox. CO2  Heating emissions  Cooking  Mining impacts Industry  Safety.Coal Int on i t uc d ro s? e ng e l y g al r h C ne e of s m e l b o r es P c r u o s re y rg e En ds n re T ng i s i m o Pr n o i lus c n Co Issues  Cost  safety  Diverts resources Environmental impacts Advantage s Uses high cost of cheap coal  abundant  Air pollution  cheap Electricity  SO2.  Health – water around the mines  Disposal of byproducts  “Clean coal:” technology = Carbon sequestration .

Natural Gas on i t uc d ro e? g n lle a ch e th s i at y h g r W ne Int en f so m le b o ve es i t Pr a rc n r u e o Alt res y g r e ds n En re T ng i s i m o Pr n o i lus c n Co Environmental impacts  Pipeline construction and leaks  Emissions of greenhouse gas  Flares Advantages  Cleanest burning of all fossil fuels  Most efficient  World production and reserves continue to rise  Known reserves: 60 year supply at current use rates .

SO2. Decline in public acceptance  Nuclear Waste High cost Liability (Insurance) CO2 Accidents: 1-Three Mile Island plant. .Chernobyl (1989) Uses About 5% global energy consumption. (1979) 2.Nuclear Power on i t uc d ro e? g n lle a ch e th s i at y h g r W ne Int en f so m le b o s e Pr c ur o es r y g r e En ds n re T ng i s i m o Pr ion s clu n Co Issues Environmental impacts Problems in its development Does not emit NOx.

O3 Oil spills Accidents: Exxon Valdez [1989] . Niger Delta Oil Environmental impacts Gas flaring Pipeline leaks CO2 emissions Air pollution: SO2. NOx.g.Oil on i t uc d ro e? g n lle a ch e th s i at y h g r W ne Int n e f so m le b s o e c Pr ur o s re y rg e ds En n re T ng i s i m o Pr ion s clu n Co % Global world production 25% 20% Saudi Arabia 15% UAE 10% Kuwait Iraq Iran Venezuela USA 5% Mexico 0% Oil production % Issues almost assured because of distributional conflicts – e.

Wast Waste e geothermal geothermal Wind Wind Tidal Tidal Hydrogen Hydrogen biomass biomass s? e ng e l y g al r h C ne e of s m e l b o s r e P c ur o es r y g r e En ds n re T ng i s i m Pro ion s clu n Co solar solar PV PV on i t uc d ro Hydropower Hydropower Int Renewable Sources Sectors • agriculture • Small industry • Homes.Services • • • • Electricity Heat Motive power Water pumping for millions in dev. . and other community needs. countries . schools.

Sources of Energy Int on i t uc d ro s? e ng e l y g al r h C ne e of s m e l b o es r c P r ou s e r y erg n E ds n re T g n i is m Pro ion s clu n Co Renewable Energy in Developing Countries %% 7040 % hot 45 water existing renewable power existing solar capacity capacity bio-fuels production Renewable Energy Promotion # countries 23 37 developed and transition countries developing countries .

Policies to Promote Renewable Energy (Most common policies) Feed-in law Renewable portfolio standards (RPS) renewable obligations quota United States. India. Japan. . and the United Kingdom. Poland. China. Sweden. Australia. Canada. producers guaranteed sale to electric network s? e ng e l y g al r h C ne e of s m e l b o es r c P r ou s e r y erg n E ds n re T ng i s i m o Pr ion s clu n Co a % of generation sold or capacity providedinstalled is by renewable energy Int on i t uc d ro 37 countries enacted since 2002. Italy.

Impact on birds: mountain ridges .Cost competitive .No air emissions . Europe leads world in installed capacity Issues and Impacts in Wind power .Wind I u d o ntr on i t c s? e ng e y l g al r h C ne e of s m e l b o s r e P c ur o es r y g r e En ds n re T ng i s i m o Pr ion s clu n Co Fastest growing world’s renewable energy resource 28 % worldwide in 2007.

Cuba. India. Finland. It provides substantial shares (5–50 percent) of district heating fuel. China. the Philippines. Used in Developing Countries at small-scale power and heat production from agricultural waste is common. Sweden and the Baltic countries . Colombia.Biofuels: Ethanol and Biodiesel Int on i t uc d ro s? e ng e l y g al r h C ne e of s em l b o r es c P r u o s re y rg e En ds n re T ng i s i m o Pr ion s clu n Co Used for Power and heating Expanding in Austria. Brazil. The use of bagasse (sugar cane after juice extraction) in countries with large sugar industry [Australia. for example from rice or coconut husks. and Thailand]. The use of Corn . Denmark.

Criticism/Fears of Biofuels Long-term effects on agriculture and the Int on i t uc d ro s? e ng e l y g al r h C ne e of s m e l b s o e r c P ur o es r rgy e En ds n re T ng i s i m o Pr ion s clu n Co environment. . Process of producing biofuels : - Cultivation - Fertilization - Harvesting - transportation) could introduce parallel carbon emissions.

Developing countries account for two-thirds of demand growth to 2030 . Developing Asian nations lead emerging markets in clean energy investment Solar attracts the most investment in emerging markets Solar accounts for more than half of clean energy additions in emerging markets Energy poverty is driving attention and resources to emerging economies. Renewable energy projected to supply most new power capacity worldwide through 2030 . Growth of future energy demand will be greatest in developing countries.Promising trends Clean energy investment in emerging economies is Int on i t uc d ro s? e ng e l y g al r h C ne e of s m e l b s o r e c P ur o s re y rg e En ds n re T g n i is m Pro ion s clu n Co small but growing.

Promising trends Int on i t uc d ro s? e ng e l y g al r h C ne e of s m e l b s o r e c P ur o s re y rg e En ds n re T g n i is m Pro ion s clu n Co .

and energy security have led to increasing interest and more development in renewable energy sources such as solar. wind. giving birth to evolution.Conclusion Imagination is more important than knowledge. whereas imagination embraces the entire world – stimulating progress. cleaner technologies can replace them. air pollution. . Albert Einstein All energy sources have an impact on the environment. but we need energy to get there. we'll need to continue to use fossil fuels and nuclear energy until new. for knowledge is Int on i t uc d ro s? e ng e l y g al r h C ne e of s em l b es o c r r P u o s re y erg n E ds n re T ng i s i m o Pr limited. geothermal. wave power and hydrogen. What policies are needed to conserve energy and advance renewable energy? ion s clu Question of Political will and the right policies n Co The future is ours. Concerns about the greenhouse effect and global warming.