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GEORGE NOEL

GORDON,
LORD BYRON
(1788-1824)

He was among the most
famous
of
the
English
'Romantic'
poets;
his
contemporaries
included
Percy Shelley and John Keats. 
He was also a satirist whose
poetry
and
personality
captured the imagination of
Europe. 

London.178 Jan. son of Captain ‘Mad Jack‘ Byron and the wealthy Catherine Gordon. . 22 8 George Gordon Byron born at 16 Holles Street. Cavendish Square.

178 Byron and his mother move 9 to Aberdeen. to Aberdeen. Scotland. As a child he was known simply as George Noel Gordon.  Born with a clubfoot. where they lived in lodgings on a meager income because Mad Jack had squandered most of . Scotland. he was taken by his mother. Catherine Gordon.

He was aged only 36.179 ‘Mad Jack' Byron dies 1 in France. .

1794-8 Byron attends Aberdeen Grammar School .

'that I dread our meeting. you little dog. you are a Byron all over. which was often.' Lord Byron later wrote. and when inflamed.Byron’s mother’s moods towards him varied from violent rages to loving affection. so furious. she would shout: 'Ah.‘ When she raged at him. you are as bad as your father!' . 'Her temper is so variable.

Once she called him 'a lame brat!' but a moment later was smothering him with kisses. George had the same quick temper and an irresistible urge to provoke conflict. On his side. .

  This experience and his idealized love for his distant cousins Mary Duff and Margaret Parker shaped his paradoxical attitudes toward women. May Gray.It was rumored that his nurse. made physical advances to him when he was only nine. .

Byron becomes sixth Baron Byron and inherits the heavily mortgaged ancestral estate. Newstead Abbey in Nottinghamshire. the fifth Baron Byron. to which he moves with his mother.179 At the death of his great8 uncle. .

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the "wicked" Lord Byron.  .George inherited the title and estates of his greatuncle.  The boy fell in love with the ghostly halls and spacious grounds of Newstead Abbey. and he and his mother lived in its ruins for a while. which had been presented to the Byron family by the infamous King Henry VIII.

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.179 Byron enters 9 Dr.Glennie's School. Dulwich and endures painful but futile treatments of his club foot.

1801 Byron enters Harrow where he will remain until 1805. He hated the 'drill'd dull lesson' and soon came into conflict with the school authorities . In Harrow he excelled at boxing and cricket.with one exception. Dr. the Head Master. but not in the classroom. Drury. who saw something more beyond the indiscipline in this 'mountain colt' and treated him with some sympathy.   .

  . which became more pronounced at Cambridge and later in Greece.His friendships with younger boys fostered a romantic attachment to the school.  It is possible that these friendships gave the first impetus to his sexual ambivalence.

1805 Byron enters Trinity College. who stirred his interest in liberal Whiggism. Byron indulged in dissipation and undue generosity in London that put him deeply into debt. After a term at Trinity College.  When he returned to Trinity he formed a close friendship with John Cam Hobhouse.  . Cambridge and befriends John Hobhouse.

.1806 Byron's Fugitive Pieces privately printed and immediately suppressed when Revd John Becher objects to some of the poems.

180 Byron's
Poems
on
Various
7
Occasions privately printed and
Hours of Idleness published. He
also
writes
a
review
of
Wordsworth's Poems. Hours of
Idleness
was
moderately
received
except
for
The
Edinburgh
Review
which
counseled 'that he do forthwith
abandon poetry, and turn his
talents . . . to better account.'
The effect of this criticism on
Byron was to put him into a rage,

His latter days at Cambridge were
mainly spent away from it. He kept
table, so he said, with jockeys,
gamblers, boxers, parsons and
poets. He also kept a tame bear in
his attic. He swam the Thames
from Lambeth to Blackfriars for a
bet,
and
made
friends
with
Gentleman John Jackson, or 'Dear
Jack' as he called him, the retired
champion prize-fighter of England.
After learning to spar at Jackson's
rooms in Bond Street, Byron
described himself as 'not a bad

A gentlemanly fencing instructor
taught him to fence but swimming
and shooting pistols at a mark were
his favourite pastimes. Wearing no
whiskers, Byron began to carry an
imposing, rather supercilious air and
took to wearing very broad white
trousers to hide his lame foot.
Confessing to being 'a spice of
everything, except a jockey', he spent
himself freely 'in routs, riots, balls,
and boxing-matches, cards . . .
masquerades, love, and lotteries . . .
opera-singers and oratorios, wine,

he took his seat in the House of Lords. Byron publishes nine poems in Imitations and Translations from the Ancient and Modern Classics by John Hobhouse. .180 9   On reaching his majority in January. In March English Bards and Scotch Reviewers is published anonymously.

Missolunghi and Athens. Malta.With Hobhouse departs for the Grand Tour: sails to Lisbon. Albania (visits the Ali Pasha). He also starts writing Canto I of Childe Harold's Pilgrimage. Portugal. . travels in Spain. Gibraltar. Greece.

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he delighted in the sunshine and moral tolerance of the people.  Byron’s sojourn in Greece made a lasting impression on his mind and character . and. .and his desire to return. he often spoke longingly of his visit .  After leaving. Byron visited the site of Troy and swam the channel in imitation of Leander.In March 1810 he sailed with Hobhouse for Constantinople by way of Smyrna. while becalmed at the mouth of the Hellespont.

181 Byron sails to England.   .     Byron arrived in London on 14 July 1811. 1 arriving by summer. and his mother died on August 1 before he could reach her at Newstead.

Childe Harold Pilgrimage I and II published by Murray in March. Second speech in House of Lords on Roman Catholics civil rights.181 2  Byron's maiden speech in the House of Lords against the death penalty for Luddities. .

love being a constant necessity of his life. As to Byron's love-life. usually with maximum loss to everyone . He invented the classic phrase.Affairs with Caroline Lamb and Lady Oxford. blundering from one affair to another. 'it's impossible to live with women. and organised his lovemaking with unparalleled stupidity. or to live without them'. he was undoubtedly a favourite with the ladies.

and was particularly noted as one of the few Parliamentary defenders of the Luddites. Byron was inspired to write political poems such as "Song for the Luddites" (1816) and "The Landlords' Interest" (1823). He was also a defender of Roman Catholics . Examples of poems where he attacked his political opponents include "Wellington: The Best of the Cut-Throats" (1819) and "The .He was a strong advocate of social reform.

His speech and his poem had not only raised his fame to an extraordinary height but crowds of eminent persons courted an .Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage published by John Murray and took the town by storm. The poet Byron woke one morning to find himself famous .the universal talk of the town.  The Edinburgh Review (Jeffrey) gave a favourable review.

Besides furnishing a poetic travelogue of picturesque lands.  .  And the poem conveyed  the disparity between the romantic ideal and the world of reality. a unique achievement in 19th century verse. it gave vents to the moods of melancholy and disillusionment of the postRevolutionary and Napoleonic eras.

disillusioned with a life of pleasure and revelry. In a wider sense. looks for distraction in foreign lands. The poem describes the travels and reflections of a world-weary young man who. it is an expression of the melancholy and disillusionment felt by a generation weary of the wars of the post-Revolutionary and .Childe Harold's Pilgrimage is a lengthy narrative poem in four parts It was published between 1812 and 1818 and is dedicated to "Ianthe".

Byron was able to express his view that "man's greatest tragedy is that he can conceive of a perfection which . by masking himself behind a literary artifice.Childe Harold became a vehicle for Byron's own beliefs and ideas. According to Jerome McGann. indeed in the preface to book three Byron acknowledges the fact that his hero is just an extension of himself.

Aside from the obvious .The work provided the first example of the Byronic hero. The hero must have a rather high level of intelligence and perception as well as be able to easily adapt to new situations and use cunning to his own gain. It is clear from this description that this hero is well educated and by extension is rather sophisticated in his style. The idea of the Byronic hero is one that consists of many different characteristics.

Generally, the hero has a
disrespect for any figure of
authority, thus creating the
image of the Byronic hero as
an exile or an outcast. The
hero also has a tendency to be
arrogant
and
cynical,
indulging in self-destructive
behaviour which leads to the
need
to
seduce
women.
Although his sexual attraction
through being mysterious is
rather helpful, this sexual
attraction often gets the hero

The
Byronic hero
pervades
much of Byron's work. Scholars
have traced the literary history
of the Byronic hero from Milton,
and many authors and artists of
the Romantic movement show
Byron's influence -- during the
19th century and beyond. The
Byronic
hero
presents
an
idealised but flawed character
whose attributes include:

•rebelling
•having a distaste for society
and social institutions
•suffering exile
•expressing a lack of respect for
rank and privilege
•having great talent
•hiding an unsavoury past
•exhibiting great passion
•ultimately, acting in a selfdestructive manner
•unsuccessful in love, usually
the beloved is dead

For the typical Gothic villain does not set out to promote a radical critique of established moral issues. however. as Byron’s immediate inspiration. This special quality of the Byronic hero sets him apart from most Gothic villains. A sense of prevenient order is always present in the pre-Byronic treatment of the hero-villain.. who served. . threatens a selfrevelation.To the reader the Byronic hero whispers.

We are always left wondering .But Byron’s tales and plays achieved their enormous influence. We say that they are skeptical. for they do not allow things to come out right in the end. and problematic. and sometimes bad reputation. because their heroes forced the reader to a more searching inquiry into norms for order and value.

  .possibly his half-sister. and . Augusta Leigh. Lady Frances Webster.The handsome poet with the clubfoot was swept into affairs with the passionate Lady Caroline Lamb.  The agitation of these affairs and the sense of mingled guilt and exultation they aroused in his mind are reflected in the Turkish tales he wrote during the period. the "autumnal" Lady Oxford.

181 3   Byron's The Waltz is privately printed. . Third and last speech at the House of Lords in support of Major Cartwright. The Giaour and The Bride of Abydos published. He makes frequent visits to Princess Charlotte (the Regent's daughter).

The Giaour (June 1813) went through eight editions by the end of the year. while Byron continued to add new sections to the poem. the Turkish lord Hassan punishes the infidelity of his wife. by drowning her in a sack (the usual . and Turkey. Leila. Byron published a series of Easternthemed Turkish Tales poems between 1813 and 1816. imparting a highly fragmentary character to it. Greece. In the tale.Following his travels in Albania.

who was having an affair with his half sister. violence. daughter of the Pasha Giaffir is loved by Selim. Augusta. Selim is shot.The Bride of Abydos (December 1813) sold equally well (six thousand copies in one month). the leader of a band of pirates. dealt with the theme of incest for the first time: Zuleika. her supposed half brother (which he is not). and brutal death are the key ingredients of this group of . When they are seen together in the harem. In this tale. and Zuleika dies of a broken heart. Illicit love. Byron.

181 4  Byron's The Corsair. ‘Lines to a Lady Weeping'. . ‘Ode to Napoleon Bonaparte' and Lara published.

As soon as the cessation of war in 1815 permitted.Nothing like the “Turkish Tales” had ever been seen. and within ten years. they were translated into French. Never before or since had or has English literature been so influential with such speed. Their convincing Oriental colours. or in other languages. and the violent events portrayed – or supposedly portrayed – in their plots. made them a phenomenon. the wildness of their characters. most were available either in continental English-language editions. .

. the poem features a mysterious and lonely hero defying society. After their flight to the pirates’ lair. While trying to rescue women of the harem. The Corsair. he is captured.His third poem in the series. a mixture of Byronic hero and gothic villain. and they subsequently disappear. Gulnare saves him from impalement by killing the pasha. Again. The sales of this poem were unprecedented: ten thousand copies on the day of publication. they discover that Conrad’s beloved Medora has died of a broken heart. was published in February 1816 and was written in heroic couplets.

. Augusta Leigh. he wrote many passionate poems.For his half-sister. She had been separated from her husband since 1811 when she gave birth on April 15. 1814 to a daughter. Byron's joy over the birth seems to substantiate the rumors of an incestuous relationship. Medora.

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She was a . the fairest skin imaginable. .After meeting Anne Isabella Millbanke. an heiress and a cousin by marriage to Lady Caroline. 'cold' .‘ 'High-principled' . . 'a strong sense of duty' were expressions that found their way into other accounts of Miss Millbanke. . . he noted that she was: 'Pretty in a modest way. and a perfect figure for her height.

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in September 1814.  The marriage took place on 2 January 1815.  Delays in negotiations to sell Newstead left them financially embarrassed and before long bailiffs were in the house demanding payment of debts.Seeking escape in marriage.  Byron escaped to the .  After a honeymoon "not all sunshine." the Byrons. settled in London. in March. he proposed to Anne Isabella (Annabella) Milbank e .

181 5  Murray publishes a fourvolume edition of Byron's poems. Hebrew Melodies published .

and in January she left with the child for a visit to her parents and let him know that she was not moving back. Augusta Ada. on 10 December.  When the rumors grew.  The reasons for her decision were never given and rumors began to fly.Lady Byron gave birth to a daughter. most of them centering on Byron’s relations with Augusta Leigh. . Byron signed the legal separation papers.

Between 1842 and 1843 she translated an article by Italian mathematician Luigi Menabrea on the engine. which she supplemented with a set of notes of . the analytical engine. and in particular Babbage's work on the analytical engine.Augusta Ada King. Countess of Lovelace was an English writer chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's early mechanical general-purpose computer. As a young adult she took an interest in mathematics.

an algorithm encoded for processing by a machine. including Babbage himself. .These notes contain what is considered the first computer program—that is. focused only on these capabilities. Though Babbage's engine was not built until 1989-91. She also foresaw the capability of computers to go beyond mere calculating or number-crunching while others. Lovelace's notes are important in the early history of computers.

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. seen through the eyes of society as a monster. now attacked him with venom. shooting him down with each and every innuendo. True to tradition.And there was newspaper scandal. the British press. Byron fell from a position of esteem into one of contempt. having acclaimed Byron.

.181 6  Byron's The Siege of Corinth and Parisina are published in February. The Prisoner of Chillon and Other Poems and Childe Harold's Pilgrimage III come out in December.

In April he leaves England for good and starts his European itinerary. Waterloo. He first travels in Belgium. For the first time he meets Percy Shelley at Sécheron.   He is now the most famous exile in Europe. rents Villa Diodati on Lake Geneva. the Rhine and Switzerland. He tours the Alps (Chamouni and Mont Blanc) and Lake .

Claire Clermont is pregnant with his child and leaves for England with the Shelleys. The child is born 12 January 1817. Mary Shelley's stepsister. and named Alba by Claire and .He meets and starts an affair with Claire Clermont.

a Faustian poetic drama that reflected Byron’s brooding sense of guilt and remorse and the wider frustrations of the romantic spirit doomed by the reflection that  man is "half dust.A tour of the Bernese Oberland with Hobhouse provided the scenery for Manfred. half deity." . alike unfit to sink or soar.

. and Manfred may also owe something to Matthew Lewis. Byron also heard Goethe's Faust about this time. which some argue is based on Byron's fragment of a novel. who visited Byron a month or two before Manfred was begun. his brief response to the challenge of the ghost-story sessions.Gothic work. a few months after the famed ghost-story sessions  which provided the initial impetus for Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and John Polidori's The Vampyre. author of The Monk. in late 1816.

The spirits. Internally tortured by some mysterious guilt. Astarte.Manfred is a Faustian noble living in the Bernese Alps. which has to do with the death of his most beloved. are unable to control past events and thus cannot grant Manfred's plea. who rule the various components of the corporeal world. he uses his mastery of language and spellcasting to summon seven spirits. For . from whom he seeks forgetfulness.

Throughout the poem. he succeeds in challenging all authoritative powers he comes across." . Manfred directs his final words to the Abbot. remarking. and chooses death over submitting to spirits of higher powers. "Old man! 't is not so difficult to die.At the end. Manfred dies defying religious temptations of redemption from sin.

Similarly. and Christianity. and because of this he is the instrument of his own destruction.Manfred represents Byron's articulation of the Romantic hero. rejecting pantheism. Manfred answers only to himself. he submits to no spiritual authority. Zoroastrianism. fashioning a punishment for his unexplained guilt that far exceeds any possible retribution imposed . a figure so far superior to other humans that he need not be bound by the constraints of human society.

He starts his affair With Marianna Segati. .In October 1816 he departs with Hobhouse for Italy where he spends the first month in Milan And then moves to Venice. his landlord's wife and Studies Armenian at a monastery on the island of San Lazzaro.

If Byron was spectacular. or the Grand Canal. and easily won a contest against a soldier . and two mastiffs at his villa. He also indulged his love of animals by keeping two monkeys. . it was in his sins. taking his pleasures as they came. a fox.an admirer of Napoleon in swimming the length of the canal. usually in droves of dark-eyed beauties eager for his attentions. He kept fit by regularly swimming in the Adriatic.

In May 1817 he joined Hobhouse in Rome and rode over the ruins. who followed him to Venice and eventually replaced Marianna Segati in his affections.  He meets Margarita Cogni. gathering impressions that he recorded in a fourth canto of Childe Harold. wife of a baker. At a summer villa at La Mira on the Brentat River. a rollicking satire on Italian manners. he writes Beppo. based on a story Margarita tells .

  But money did not solve any of his problems.  Shelley and other visitors.181 7    In December he sells Newstead Abbey for £ 94. The sale of Newstead Abbey finally cleared most of his debts and left him with a small income which supported him in Italy. had found Byron grown fat. . notably his dissatisfaction and restlessness.500. in 1818.

During the summer.181 8   Byron's Beppo and Childe Harold's Pilgrimage IV are published respectively in February and April. with pointed references to his own experiences. he completes the first canto of Don Juan. He rents a palazzo on the Grand Canal where he spends much time with the Shelleys and begins Don Juan. a picaresque verse satire. .

. you are the father of my little girl and I cannot forget you. Allegra with her blue eyes and fair curls delighted Byron but she soon showed her father's . In the hope that it would open a door for her back to Byron. writing to him: '. Byron was not keen on renewing his intimacy with Claire but was prepared to receive their daughter Allegra. Claire allowed her daughter to go to Byron.' At first.The Shelleys arrived with Claire and her daughter Allegra. .

to Murray's distress.181 Mazeppa and Ode to Venice 9 published in June. All four cantos of Childe Harold's Pilgrimage published together.  . and then pirated. Don Juan III published anonymously in July.

  In a few days he fell completely in love with Teresa. 19 years old and married to man nearly three times her age.  Byron followed her to Ravenna. later in the summer.A chance meeting with the Countess Teresa Guicciolo in April 1819 changed the course of his life. she accompanied him back to Venice and stayed until her husband called for her.  . and.

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the Italian revolutionary movement against Austrian rule. Byron returned to Ravenna in January 1820.  He won the friendship of her father and brother who initiated him into the secret revolutionary society of the Carbonari. as Teresa’s accepted gentleman-inwaiting. .

In Ravenna he was brought into closer touch with the life of the Italian people than he had ever been.  .  He gave arms to the Carbonari and alms to the poor.

. Byron wrote to her: 'My love . your lover friend and (when circumstances permit) your husband. should make me forever what I am now. .my duty my honour .' Now sure of Byron's commitment. The permanent pledge of Byron and Teresa to each other lent some stability to his life . Teresa laid her case before the Pope who granted her a separation from Count Guiccioli on condition that she lived respectably under her father's roof.The lovers were desolate.

It was one of the happiest and most productive periods of his life. The Vision of Judgment. and Cain (all published in 1821). three cantos for Don Juan.  He wrote The Prophecy of Dante. Sardanapalus. and his satire on the poet Robert Southey. the poetic dramas Marino Faliero. . The Two Foscari.

When Teresa’s father and brother were exiled for the part in an abortive uprising and she. now separated from her husband. was forced to follow them. where Shelley had rented the Casa Lanfranchi on the Arno River for him. Byron reluctantly removed to Pisa.  .

He leaves his daughter Allegra in a
convent near Ravenna where he
sends her to be educated.  She dies
on 20 April of the following year
from typhoid.

Byron paid daily visits to Teresa,
whose father and brother had
found temporary asylum in Pisa,
until early summer when then all
went to Leghorn, where Byron had
leased a villa near Shelley’s house
on the Bay of Lerici.  There the
poet Leigh Hunt found him on 1
July, when he arrived from England
to join with Shelley and Byron in
the editing of a new periodical. 
Hunt and his family were installed
in the lower floor of Byron’s house
in Pisa, where Byron and Teresa

The drowning of Shelley on 8 July
left Hunt entirely dependent on
Byron, who had already "loaned"
him money for his passage and the
apartment.  Byron found Hunt an
agreeable companion, but their
relations were somewhat strained
by
Mrs.
Hunt’s
moral
condescension and by the demands
of
her
six
children. 
Byron
contributed his Vision of Judgment
to the first number of the new
periodical, The Liberal, which was
published in London by Hunt’s
brother John  on 15 October 1822. 

. where Teresa’s family had found asylum and had taken a large house for him.At the end of September he moved his entire household to a suburb of Genoa.  Mary Shelley leased another house nearby for herself and the Hunts.

including cantos VI to XVI of Don Juan. The Age of Bronze. and The Island . John Murray. Byron gave all his later work .  .to John Hunt.After a quarrel with his publisher.

xv. It is a variation on the epic form. with a total of over sixteen thousand individual lines of verse. c. v. Byron himself called it an "Epic Satire" (Don Juan. Modern critics generally consider it Byron's masterpiece. which Byron reverses. leaving an unfinished . 790). portraying Juan not as a womanizer but as someone easily seduced by women. Byron completed 16 cantos.Don Juan is a satiric poem. based on the legend of Don Juan.

and the narrator. Byron claimed that he had no plot in mind as he wrote the poem. Byron himself. and he continued to add episodes as long as he lived. who maintains a mocking. ironic relationship with the story. digressive satiric poem is a loose narrative held together only by the hero.This long. Don Juan. .

and he was still at work on a seventeenth canto in the spring of 1823. with intervals of unequal duration. Don Juan. Interruptions in the composition and publication of Don Juan were due to the disapproval and . Nevertheless. was coextensive with a major part of his poetical life. He began the first canto of Don Juan in the autumn of 1818. the composition of his great poem.Byron was a rapid as well as a voluminous writer. The poem was issued in parts.

he says... "I have finished the first canto . provoked by advice and opposition.Many of Byron's remarks and reflections on the motive behind his poem are humorous paradoxes. writing to Thomas Moore. For instance.. meant to be a little quietly facetious upon every thing. of a poem in the style and manner of Beppo. But I doubt whether it is not—at least as far as it has . It is . encouraged by the good success of the same..

Do you suppose that I could have any intention but to giggle and make giggle?—a playful satire. "You ask me for the plan of Donny Johnny.Critical opinion aligned itself with the opinion that the poem was "too free. Byron wrote to Murray . was .." however.. a month after the two first cantos had been issued.. You are too earnest and eager about a work never intended to be serious. with as little poetry as could be helped. but I had or have materials. I have no plan—I had no plan.

The action of the poem takes place in the latter quarter of the 18th century. and events burst into the narrative. thus creating a broad critical picture of European life. ideas. broad volume of the life and . The famous writer Gideon praised Don Juan as “the work of an absolute genius” for its profound thoughts and contents. but Byron’s own time with its sentiments.

Canto I (written in 1818) In Sevilla. causing her to plot against him and file for divorce. Juan's father Jóse is married to Juan's mother Inez. Inez strikes up an affair with Don Alfonso. and in turn Alfonso's 23 y/o lovely wife eyes the 16 y/o Don Juan. leaving Juan the sole heir. His classical education is intended by his mother to shield him from salacious material (this effort is unsuccessful). but has various affairs. On a summer day in June. an inadvertent touch of her . Such things are more common in sundrenched climes. Conveniently he dies.

Donna Inez decides that her son should travel and see the world. But Don Alfonso returns. and eventually discovers Juan's shoes next to the bed. and then Juan. but he is suspicious and searches with his lackeys for her suspected male lover unsuccessfully. and Julia is sent to a nunnery. Julia makes an extended speech of outrage and indignation. a half-smothered and slender Don Juan emerges from the bed where he had hidden all along.One night Don Alfonso arrives to find Julia in bed with Antonia her maid. so makes plans to send him to Cadiz. He carries a tearful . whereupon Juan flees. Alfonso files for divorce. After Alfonso leaves.

But a storm sinks the ship. They draw lots (using Julia's letter for paper) to see who will be eaten--sadly it is Pedrillo. Eventually. Juan as the sole survivor washes ashore on an island in the Cyclades in the Aegean. He is discovered by the lovely 17 y/o Haidée . Juan and his fellow survivors cram into a longboat and eventually find themselves starving. accompanied by 3 servants and a tutor Pedrillo. still in love with Julia (and seasick). intending to travel for 4 years.Canto II (written in 1818-9) Juan embarks on a voyage from Cadiz on the ship Trinidada.

She was "Nature's bride. idyllic. Haidée has no mother. Passion's child. is a "fisherman" and pirate who makes his living plundering ships that shipwreck there--he takes the cargoes and sells the occupants into slavery. Lambro.... .. needs no vows--it is like the first parents Adam and Eve. Her love for Juan is innocent. though they cannot initially understand each other's spoken language.Juan and Haidée's love blossoms. etc. Her Greek father.

Canto III (written in 1819) The opening line is "Hail Muse! et cetera. and was thought to have died. parodying classic epic conventions..". making discrete inquiries of others. . etc. and there are lengthy digressions on poetry. Lambro her father has been away for a while. But now however. He bides his time unrecognized. he returns (like Odysseus to a house full of unwelcome suitors) to find that Haidée and Juan have moved into his house and are having a large celebration. The poets thoughts on marriage. The Isles of Greece poem is sung by their poet.. His house was in mourning for several weeks.

Canto IV (written in 1819) After the celebration is over. and placed in the hold of a slave ship as part of the cargo of slaves. Lambro attacks and. The isle is now deserted--the graves . Haidée and Juan are asleep together. with the aid of his pirate associates. her unborn child dying within her. Haidée despairs at the loss and refuses food. Juan is severely wounded. "a nymph and her beloved". She dreams and her dream evolves into real image of her father--he stands over them and confronts them. defeats Juan despite Haidée's efforts to defend her lover. dying after 12 days of fasting.

and other entertainers aboard.Juan finds himself a captive at sea. Juan is paired up in chains with an Englishman. passing Ilion (Troy) and entering the Hellespont. Istanbul. as the slave ship stands at anchor beneath the palace walls. The slave ship has a troupe of singers. a man of the world named John Johnson. They are taken to the slave market in the capital. . dancers.

last. He converses with the Englishman.Canto V (written in 1820) Juan in the slave market. She . and threatens him with castration if he resists. and takes the infidels to the palace. and favorite wife. where he insists that Don Juan dress as a woman. a 26 y/o beauty who is the sultan's fourth. buys Juan and John. Full of stubborn pride. Baba. A black eunuch from the seraglio. He takes them back to an inner chamber. he refuses to kiss her foot and finally compromises by kissing her hand. Finally. Gulbeyaz. whereas the more experienced John says he had to run away from his 3rd wife. Juan is brought into an imperial hall to meet the sultana. telling of his lost love.

(he is 59 y/o and has 1500 concubines). saying "The prisoned eagle will not pair. preceded by a parade of damsels. and throws herself on his breast. Looking around." She is taken aback. But he still has thoughts of Haidée and spurns her advances. and thinks of having him beheaded. eunuchs. he takes note of the ." The sultan arrives. nor I / Serve a sultana's sensual phantasy. Before they can progress further in their relationship.She wants Juan to "love" her. etc. but breaks out in tears instead. Baba rushes in to announce that the Sultan is coming: "The sun himself has sent me like a ray / To hint that he is coming up this way. enraged.

Dudù suddenly screams. and awakens agitated. Juan... Her talents were of the more silent class." She gives Juanna a chaste kiss and undresses. The chamber of odalisques is asleep at 3 AM. She is a "kind of sleepy Venus .. very fit to murder sleep.. He is asked to share a couch with the young and lovely 17 y/o Dudù. pensive. The women ask the cause of her scream. and she relates a suggestive dream of being in a wood like Dante. while Juanna still lies asleep and snoring.. of dislodging a reluctant golden apple clinging .Canto VI (written in 1822) The sultan retires with Gulbeyaz.... is taken to the overcrowded seraglio. still dressed as a woman. who calls him Juanna.

the sultana asks Baba to tell her how Don Juan passed the night. The sultana . He tells of "her" stay in the seraglio.The matron of the seraglio decides to place Juanna with another odalisque. becomes enraged. In the morning. but carefully omits details about Dudù and her dream. The poet is at a loss to explain why she screamed. and instructs Baba to have Dudù and Juan killed in the usual manner (drowning). but Dudù begs to keep her in her own bed. hiding her face in Juanna's breast. Baba pleads with her that killing Juan will not cure what ails her. But the sultana is suspicious nevertheless.

the commander-inchief of the Russian army. He has been told to "take Ismail at whatever price" by Prince Potemkin. and arrive during the siege of Ismail (historically 1790). an officer in the Russian army. The battle rages. is preparing for an all-out final assault against the besieged fortress. The . Field Marshall Suvaroff. a Turkish fort at the mouth of the Danube on the Black Sea.Canto VII (written in 1822) Juan and John Johnson have escaped with 2 women from the seraglio.

John Johnson appears to Suvaroff (with whom he has previously served in battle at Widdin) and introduces his friend Juan--both are ready to join the fight against the "pagan" Turks. and that the women aided their escape. Suvaroff consents for the women to stay. . but they state that they are the wives of other men. Suvaroff is unhappy with the women the 2 men brought.

The conquest of Ismail causes the slaughter of 40. They scale the walls of the town and charge into battle. among them women (only a few of whom are ravished) and children.  Juan is a hero and is sent to Petersburgh. A noble Tartar khan valiantly fights to the death alongside his 5 sons. Juan nobly rescues a 10 y/o Muslim child Leila from two murderous Cossacks intent on killing her. presumably to be rewarded with houris in heaven.Canto VIII (written in 1822) Juan and John join fearlessly and bravely in the savage assault on Ismail. and immediately resolves to adopt her as his own child.000 Turks. just as instructed by Mahomet. .

/ Selfish in its beginning as its end." Juan still .Canto IX (written in 1822) Dressed as a war hero in military uniform. Juan cuts a handsome figure in the court of Queen Catherine II. He becomes one of her favorites and is flattered by her interest as well as promoted for it. "Love is vanity. She is c. / Except where 'tis a mere insanity. 48 y/o [historically actually 61-2 y/o] and "just now in juicy vigour". who lusts after him.

revels. etc. [and] ready money". He writes his mother Donna Inez. Gradually. and gradually becomes very polished. still strong but delicate. Juan becomes ill. who worries about his exposure to Greek worship.Canto X (written in 1822) Juan enjoys the good life. is in demand at court with "damsels and dances. But he also becomes a little dissipated "in this gay clime of bearskins black and furry". His doctors say he needs to travel to .

They travel to London.) Leila marvels at Canterbury cathedral. etc. (Byron has now been away from England in exile for 7 years. but wonders how God could tolerate infidels (Christians) there. . Holland. passing through Poland. the Rhine river.Juan loves Leila. who stubbornly remains a Muslim and refuses conversion to Christianity.

lunching. He is in demand by fair virgins and wedded dames. He is presented to and settles into fashionable society in London. The poet cautions Juan not to become complacent: "But carpe .Canto XI (written in 1822) Juan kills a man in self-defense. living "amongst live poets and blue ladies". lounging. etc. and boxing in the afternoons. dining and dancing in the evening. He is superficial and blasé. pursuing business in the morning ("a laborious nothing that leads to lassitude").

Juan is still idling in London. Several persons compete to take up Leila's education. though they gradually grow on him. of whom Juan is a favorite. etc. now 35 y/o. flirting. .Canto XII (written in 1822) The poet laments middle age. Juan. and he finally chooses Lady Pinchbeck. coming from a land of passions and is not impressed by the reserved London women at first.

She is "the fair most fatal Juan ever met". the glass of all that's fair. Diplomatic relations often bring Juan ("the envoy of a secret Russian mission") and Lord Henry together. the "queen bee. The Amundevilles invite numerous distinguished guests for a party at their country estate. The banquet.Canto XIII (written in 1823) The Lady Adeline Amundeville and her husband Lord Henry Amundeville host Juan and others.. English . / Whose charms made all men speak and women dumb". and he befriends Juan and makes him a frequent guest at their London mansion..

Canto XIV (written in 1823) Juan acquits himself well on a fox hunt. Lady Adeline is jealous of the Duchess (who has had many amorous exploits). Juan and Adeline are both 27 y/o. . Lady Adeline has a vacant heart and has a cold but proper marriage. He is attractive to the ladies. She is not in love with Juan. but the poet will only later divulge whether they have an affair (apparently not). including the Duchess of Fitz-Fulke. who begins to flirt with him. and resolves to protect the "inexperienced" Juan from her enticements.

Juan is attracted to her--she is purer than the rest. and reminds him of his lost Haidée. but he acknowledges the women he is attracted to tend to be already married. He neither brooks nor claims superiority. a Catholic. Juan has a seductive manner because he never seems anxious to seduce. Aurora has . but intentionally omits mention of the 16 y/o and enticing Aurora Raby. Juan is seated between Adeline and Aurora. Adeline tries to deduce a suitable match for Juan. Adeline advises Juan to get married. An elaborate dinner is described in detail.Canto XV (written in 1823) Lady Adeline is at risk for losing her honour over Juan.

Lord Henry relates the story of the "Black Friar".Canto XVI (written in 1823) Juan is smitten with the beautiful Aurora. He hears footsteps. and he tells of seeing the monk. At night.  The next morning. though the monk passes and repasses several times. and sees a monk in cowl and beads. Adeline appears pale. and Aurora surveys him "with a kind of calm surprise". Adeline wonders if he is ill. the Duchess looks at Juan hard. he walks into the hall. and thinks of her on retiring. viewing the gallery of paintings. Is this a ghost. a phantasy? He does not see his face. the "spirit of these walls" who used to be seen often but .

but Lady Fitz-Fulke appears mischievous. He visits with Lord Henry. She suggests that Adeline has sung this to laugh Juan out of his dismay.Adeline offers to sing the story of the ghost. / And expelled the friars. The song begins." Aurora remains silent. Amundeville. / When the Lord of the Hill. / And his mass of the days that are gone. Juan's spirits are lifted. one friar still / Would not be driven away. accompanying it on her harp. / Made Norman Church his prey. A pregnant country . "Beware! beware of the Black Friar! / Who sitteth by Norman stone. / For he mutters his prayer in the midnight air.

while Aurora sits pale and only a little flushed. who has reawakened feelings in him which had been lately lost. Juan thinks about Aurora. he hears the tiptoe of footsteps again.  They retire for the evening. a straggling curl. Adeline goes about her duties.Another banquet. He pursues the friar up against a wall. while the Duchess of Fitz-Fulke is very much at ease. at which Juan is preoccupied. After going to bed. red lips and . He wonders if Aurora had been the ghost--did he catch a smile on her cheek? He is vexed with uncertainty. and again it is the sable Friar concealed in his solemn hood. The doors opens. notes the "ghost" has sweet breath.

." The poet does not say whether vice or virtue had triumphed during the night.Canto XVII (incomplete fragment. as if she had kept / A vigil or dreamt rather more than slept. Don Juan appears wan and worn as if he had combated two ghosts. written in 1823) At breakfast the next morning. and the Duchess "Seemed pale and shivered.

and .The poem is in eight line iambic pentameter with the rhyme scheme ab ab ab cc . The rhyme scheme of each stanza is known as ottava rima. Because of its few rhymed endings. In Italian. because of the common rhymed endings. There are mostly 10 syllables per line.often the last rhyming couplet is used for a humor comic line or humorous bathos. the effect of ottava rima is often highly comedic or highly tragic. the effect of ottava rima in English is often comic.

The age discovers he is not the true one. (The usual English pronunciation of Juan is /wɑn/ . I'll therefore take our ancient friend Don Juan In the above passage. after cloying the gazettes with cant.as a master of rhyme Till. the word being read according to the rules of English orthography as /dʒuən/ JEW-ən. "Juan" is rhymed with "true one". Of such as these I should not care to vaunt.

She sent her son to be embark'd at Cadiz." the city in Spain: And then. in stanza 190 of the first canto.Similarly. suggesting it is to be pronounced /keɪdiz/ KAY-deez. . The usual English pronunciation of Cadiz is /kədɪz/ kədizz. by the advice of some old ladies. Byron rhymes "ladies" with "Cádiz.

  .But soon enough. in 1823 Byron's old restlessness returned and the domesticity of his life with Teresa gave no satisfaction.  He also longed for the opportunity for some noble action that would vindicate him in the eyes of his countrymen.

. when the London Greek Committee contacted him in April 1823 to act as its agent in aiding the Greek war for independence from the Turks. but he desired to do more he wanted to engage in active service. energy. This was a worthy cause to which a poet of liberty might splendidly give his name. Byron immediately accepted the offer.  All of his legendary enthusiasm.Accordingly. and imagination were now at the service of the Greek army.

  He sent 4000 pounds of his own money to prepare the Greek fleet for sea service and then sailed for Missolonghi on 29 December to join Prince Alexandros Mavrokordatos.  . arriving at the Ionian island of Cephalonia on 2 August. Byron left Genoa on a chartered ship. he settled in Metaxata.On 16 July. leader of the forces in western Greece.

.

  On 15 February 1824 he fell ill (he possibly had two epileptic fits in a fortnight) and the usual remedy of bleeding weakened him at the .With tremendous passion he entered into the plans to attack the Turkishheld fortress of Lepanto. reputedly the bravest of the Greeks.  In addition he made dedicated but ultimately fruitless efforts to unite eastern and western Greece.  He employed a fire master to prepare artillery and took under his own command and pay the Souliot soldiers.

whom he had brought as a page from Cephalonia and to whom he addressed his final poems. he now possessed a more realistic view of the obstacles facing the army. . a Greek boy.  He was also suffering from the emotional strain of his friendship with Loukas Chalandritsanos.Though his enthusiasm for the Greek cause was undiminished.

182 4   He writes ‘On this day I complete my thirty-sixth year' and publishes The Deformed Transformed and Don Juan XVXVI . Recollections of Lord Byron published by Dallas and Journal of the Conversations of Lord Byron at Pisa by Medwin. .

28 days before his death of fever. 1824. written on the poet’s birthday. has a sense of his life drawing to a close. .The poem "On This Day I complete My Thirty-Sixth Year" from Lord Byron. on January 22nd.

for example.Byron was a person who had lots of affairs and incestuous relationships with. Towards the end of his short life he got a more realistic view and was pursued by guilt about his affairs. who did not dislike sexual contact with both sexes and who had a very turbulent and not very constant love-life. his half-sister and two cousins. .

As the title says. but he is also talking about the death of his love. the poem was written on his thirty-sixth birthday and could be understood as his desire for his thirty-seventh year. . The main aspect of the poem and leitmotif is death. The poem has ten stanzas with  four verses each. Byron already was pretty ill and was to die soon. He is not happy with the number of the relationships he has had in his life.

.It is a poem on his wish and need for freedom and the last love and desire for loving romantically. Byron uses  two of his main motives in this poems. He talks of his dream of being a hero but also about love.

and it unfortunately caught Byron while he was still weak from the convulsive fits of mid-February.  But in early April he was caught outdoors in a rainstorm. though drenched and chilled. he eventually slipped into a coma.The spring of 1824 was wet and miserable. he did not hurry home. the cold grew worse.  He continued to carry out his duties and seemed on the path to certain recovery.  Unfortunately.  Around six o'clock in the evening of 19 . he caught a violent cold which was soon aggravated by the bleeding insisted on by the doctors.  Though he briefly rallied.

Deeply mourned by the Greeks. placed in the vault of his ancestors near Newstead.  .  His body was embalmed. he became a hero throughout their land. the heart was removed and buried in Missolonghi. refused burial in Westminster Abbey.  His remains were then sent to England and.

Lord Byron . Mary Magdalene Church final resting place of George Gordon.St.

were burned by a group of his friends. . which he intended for publication after his death.His memoirs.

in 1969. 145 years after his death.Ironically.  . a memorial to Byron was finally placed on the floor of the Abbey.

Memorial plaque inside Westminster .

1825  Murray produces an eightvolume edition of Byron's poetry. . and Hazlitt's essay on ‘Lord Byron' appears in The Spirit of the Age.

182 6  Don Juan is published in two volumes. .

  These personal writings possess all the immediate force and vitality of his poetry.The life of Byron has been the source of endless anecdotes. from his own time to ours. wit.  His character. and charm were impressed upon virtually everyone who met him. .  Beyond the opinions of others. however. one can know Byron on a personal level through the letters and journals which chronicle every aspect of his life in his own words.

Byron exercised a marked influence on Continental literature and art. and his reputation as poet is higher in many European countries than in England or America. although not as high as in his time. .

and . In the last 20 years two new feature films about him have screened. Today some 36 International Byron Societies function throughout the world.The re-founding of the Byron Society in 1971 reflects the fascination that many people have for Byron and his work. Hardly a year passes without a new book about the poet appearing. publishing a learned annual journal. and an International Conference takes place annually. This society has become very active.