# Physics 111: Lecture 13

Today’s Agenda

Potential Energy & Force

Sys tems of Particles

Center of m ass

Velocity and acceleration of the center of mass

Dynamics of the center of mass
 Linear Momentum

Example problems

Physics 111: Lecture 13, Pg 1

Potential Energy & Force

For a conservative force we define the
function:

potential energy
x2

U  W    F dx
x1

dU
F 
dx

Therefore:

Consider some potential energy functions we know, and find the
forces:

U    F dx  C

1 2
kx  C
2

Spring:

Ux 

Gravity near earth:

U y  mgy  C

Newton’s Gravity:

UR

GMm

C
R

Fx  

dU
 kx
dx

Fy  

dU
 mg
dy

dU
GMm
FR  

dR
R2
It’s true!!
Physics 111: Lecture 13, Pg 2

Potential Energy Diagrams

Consider a block sliding on a
frictionless surface, attached
to an ideal spring.
1
U s  kx 2
2

m
x
U

0

x

Physics 111: Lecture 13, Pg 3

Potential Energy Diagrams

Consider a block sliding on a
frictionless surface, attached
to an ideal spring.

F
m
x

1
U s  kx 2
2

U

F = -dU/dx = -slope
F
x

0

x

Physics 111: Lecture 13, Pg 4

Pg 5 .Potential Energy Diagrams  The potential energy of the block is the same as that of an object sliding in a frictionless “bowl”: Ug = mgy = 1/2 kx2 = Us m U y k x2 2 gm is the height of an object in the bowl at position x 0 x Physics 111: Lecture 13.

it won’t move.Equilibrium     F = -dU/dx = -slope So F = 0 if slope = 0. Pg 6 . This is called an equilibrium position. m x U 0 x Physics 111: Lecture 13.  If we place the block at rest at x = 0. This is the case at the minimum or maximum of U(x).

In calculus language. This is the case if U is a minimum at the equilibrium position.Equilibrium    If small displacements from the equilibrium position result in a force that tends to move the system back to its equilibrium position. the equilibrium is said to be stable. F m x U F 0 x Physics 111: Lecture 13. Pg 7 . the equilibrium is stable if the curvature (second derivative) is positive.

curvature).  If it returns to the equilibrium position when you give it a little push.Equilibrium Balance cone Birds    U Suppose U(x) looked unstable like this: This has two equilibrium neutral positions. Pg 8 . the equilibrium is unstable. Physics 111: Lecture 13. one is stable (+ curvature) and one is unstable (.  If the curvature is zero (flat line) the equilibrium is neutral. the equilibrium is stable. stable Think of a small object sliding on the U(x) x 0 surface:  If it wants to keep sliding when you give it a little push.

An extended solid object (like a disk) can be thought of as a collection of parts.System of Particles     Until now. The motion of each little part depends on where it is in the object! Physics 111: Lecture 13. we have considered the behavior of very simple systems (one or two masses). consider a simple rotating disk. But real life is usually much more interesting! For example. Pg 9 .

N = 4) Physics 111: Lecture 13.System of Particles: Center of Mass   Ice table How do we describe the “position” of a system made up of many parts? Define the Center of Mass (average position):  For a collection of N individual pointlike particles whose masses and positions we know: RCM  N m1 i 1 N r1  m i ri  mi i 1 m4 r 4 m2 y RCM x r2 r3 m3 (In this case. Pg 10 .

System of Particles: Center of Mass  If the system is made up of only two particles: N RCM   m i ri i 1 N  mi m1 r1  m2 r2  m1  m2 i 1  So:  m1  m2  r1  m2  r2  r1   m1  m2  RCM m  r1  2  r2  r1  M where M = m1 + m2 r2 .r1 m1 r1 RCM m2 r2 y x Physics 111: Lecture 13. Pg 11 .

Pg 12 .r1 + m1 r1 RCM m2 r2 y x Physics 111: Lecture 13. r2 .System of Particles: Center of Mass  If the system is made up of only two particles: RCM  r1  m2  r2  r1  M where M = m1 + m2 If m1 = m2 RCM  r1  1  r2  r1  2 the CM is halfway between the masses.

r1 1  r2  r1  4 the CM is now closer to the heavy mass. m1 m2 + RCM r1 r2 y x Physics 111: Lecture 13.System of Particles: Center of Mass  If the system is made up of only two particles: RCM  r1  m2  r2  r1  M where M = m1 + m2 If m1 = 3m2 RCM  r1  r2 . Pg 13 .

m1 + m2 m1 + m2 Physics 111: Lecture 13.System of Particles: Center of Mass  Baton The center of mass is where the system is balanced!  Building a mobile is an exercise in finding centers of mass. Pg 14 .

i m i y i .System of Particles: Center of Mass  We can consider the components of RCM separately: ( X CM . Z CM )     i m i x i . N = 4) Physics 111: Lecture 13. i m i z i  M M M m4 r 4  m2 m1 r1  y RCM x r2 r3 m3 (In this case.YCM . Pg 15 .

12) m m (0.6) Physics 111: Lecture 13. Pg 16 .Example Calculation:  X CM  YCM Consider the following mass distribution:  i mi x i m0  ( 2 m )12  m24   12 M 4m 2m m0  ( 2 m )12  m0 my  i i i  6 M 4m (12.0) RCM = (12.0) (24.

dm y r x RCM   rdm   rdm M  dm where dm is an infinitesimal mass element.System of Particles: Center of Mass  For a continuous solid. Pg 17 . we have to do an integral. Physics 111: Lecture 13.

y RCM x Physics 111: Lecture 13. Pg 18 .System of Particles: Center of Mass  We find that the Center of Mass is at the “center” of the object.

Physics 111: Lecture 13. Pg 19 . y RCM x The location of the center of mass is an intrinsic property of the object!! (it does not depend on where you choose the origin or coordinates when calculating it).System of Particles: Center of Mass  We find that the Center of Mass is at the “center” of the object.

System of Particles: Center of Mass   We can use intuition to find the location of the center of mass for symmetric objects that have uniform density: It will simply be at the geometrical center ! + CM + + + + + Physics 111: Lecture 13. Pg 20 .

R 1 + + RCM m2 R2  mi R i i 1 N  mi i 1 so if we have two objects: RCM m1 R1 y m1R1  m2 R2  m1  m2  R1  m2  R2  R1  M x Physics 111: Lecture 13.Pisa System of Particles: Center of Mass  Bottle The center of mass for a combination of objects is the average center of mass location of the objects: N RCM  + R2 . Pg 21 .

Act 1 Center of Mass   The disk shown below (1) clearly has its CM at the center.Lecture 13. Pg 22 . Suppose the disk is cut in half and the pieces arranged as shown in (2):  Where is the CM of (2) as compared to (1)? (a) higher (b) lower (c) same X CM (1) (2) Physics 111: Lecture 13.

Pg 23 . Act 1 Solution  The CM of each half-disk will be closer to the fat end than to the thin end (think of where it would balance).  The CM of the compound object will be halfway between the CMs of the two halves.  This is higher than the CM of the disk X X X CM X (1) (2) Physics 111: Lecture 13.Lecture 13.

System of Particles: Center of Mass Double cone The center of mass (CM) of an object is where we can freely pivot that object. pivot + CM  mg Physics 111: Lecture 13. Pg 24 . pivot + CM  This fact can be used to find the CM of odd-shaped objects. pivot + CM  Gravity acts on the CM of an object (show later)  If we pivot the object somewhere else. it will orient itself so that the CM is directly below the pivot.

Pg 25 . Physics 111: Lecture 13.System of Particles: Center of Mass  Odd shapes Hang the object from several pivots and see where the vertical lines through each pivot intersect! pivot pivot pivot + CM  The intersection point must be at the CM.

What kind of equilibrium is this position? a) stable b) neutral c) unstable Physics 111: Lecture 13. Pg 26 .Lecture 13. spoon. Act 2 Center of Mass  3 pronged object Fork. and match An object with three prongs of equal mass is balanced on a wire (equal angles between prongs).

its center of mass will not be above the wire and gravity will make the object fall off + CM + CM mg mg (front view) Physics 111: Lecture 13.Lecture 13. Act 2 Solution The center of mass of the object is at its center and is initially directly over the wire If the object is pushed slightly to the left or right. Pg 27 .

the center of mass of the object is below the wire + CM mg When the object is pushed slightly.Lecture 13. Act 2 Solution  Consider also the case in which the two lower prongs have balls of equal mass attached to them: + CM mg In this case. creating a stable equilibrium Physics 111: Lecture 13. gravity provides a restoring force. Pg 28 .

the CM of a system can also move. Physics 111: Lecture 13. Suppose we know the position ri of every particle in the system as a function of time. Pg 29 . So: And:  RCM 1 N   m i ri M i 1 VCM dRCM 1 N dri 1 N    mi   mi v i dt M i 1 dt M i 1 ACM dVCM 1 N dv i 1 N    mi   m i ai dt M i 1 dt M i 1  N  M mi    i 1 The velocity and acceleration of the CM is just the weighted average velocity and acceleration of all the particles.Velocity and Acceleration of the Center of Mass   If its particles are moving.

Pg 30 .  Newton’s 2nd Law: F = ma d ( mv)  m dv  dt dt  F  dp dt Units of linear momentum are kg m/s. the momentum p is defined as: (p is a vector since v is a p = mv vector). So px = mvx etc. Physics 111: Lecture 13.Linear Momentum:  Definition: For a single particle.

Pg 31 .Linear Momentum:  For a system of particles the total momentum P is the vector sum of the individual particle momenta: N i 1 i 1 P   pi   m i v i N  i 1  But we just showed that  m i v i  MVCM So N  VCM 1 N    mi v i  M i 1  P  MVCM Physics 111: Lecture 13.

P  MVCM dV dP  M CM  MACM   m i ai   Fi .net dt dt i i  Observe:  dP We are interested in dt so we need to figure out  Fi .Linear Momentum:  So the total momentum of a system of particles is just the total mass times the velocity of the center of mass.net i Physics 111: Lecture 13. Pg 32 .

NET  F13  F12  F1.EXT All of the “internal” forces cancel !! Only the “external” force matters !! Physics 111: Lecture 13..EXT (since the other forces cancel in pairs.   Fi . and in addition there is an external force pushing on particle 1.Newton’s 3rd Law) m3 F32 F13 F23 m1 F12 F21 m2 F1. Each particle interacts with every other.EXT i  F31   F21  F23    F31  F32   F1..Linear Momentum:  Suppose we have a system of three particles as shown. Pg 33 .

EXT  FNET . Pg 34 .EXT  dP  MACM dt m1 m2 F1.EXT i dt m3 Which is the same as: FNET .EXT Newton’s 2nd law applied to systems! Physics 111: Lecture 13.Linear Momentum:  Only the total external force matters! dP   Fi .

the total momentum of the system can not change. Pg 35 .  The total momentum of a system is conserved if there are no external forces acting.  Physics 111: Lecture 13.Center of Mass Motion: Recap  We have the following law for CM motion: FEXT  Pork chop Pendulum dP  MACM dt  This has several interesting implications:  It tells us that the CM of an extended object behaves like a simple point mass under the influence of external forces:  We can use it to relate F and A like we are used to doing. It tells us that if FEXT = 0.

They begin to pull towards each other. Pg 36 .Example: Astronauts & Rope  Two astronauts at rest in outer space are connected by a light rope. Where do they meet? M = 1.5m m Physics 111: Lecture 13.

5m CM L x=L x=0 Finding the CM: If we take the astronaut on the left to be at x = 0: x cm  M ( 0 )  m( L ) m( L ) 2   L M m 2 .5 m 5 Physics 111: Lecture 13.  They start at rest. So.Example: Astronauts & Rope. the CM does not move! They will meet at the CM. so VCM = 0.. Pg 37 .  m M = 1.  VCM remains zero because  there are no external forces..

Act 3 Center of Mass Motion   A man weighs exactly as much as his 20 foot long canoe.  What is his new distance from the shore. Next he walks toward the shore until he gets to the end of the canoe.Lecture 13. 20 ft (a) 10 ft before 20 ft (b) 15 ft (c) 16. Initially he stands in the center of the motionless canoe. Pg 38 .7 ft ? ft after Physics 111: Lecture 13. (There no horizontal force on the canoe by the water). a distance of 20 feet from shore.

Lecture 13. the CM of the man-canoe system will be halfway between the CM of the man and the CM of the canoe.  Initially the CM of the system is 20 ft from shore. X X x 20 ft CM of system Physics 111: Lecture 13. Pg 39 . Act 3 Solution  Since the man and the canoe have the same mass.

Pg 40 .  He ends up moving 5 ft toward the shore (15 ft away). the location of the CM of the system can’t change!  Therefore. Act 3 Solution  Since there is no force acting on the canoe in the x-direction. the man ends up 5 ft to the left of the system CM. 15 ft X 10 ft X 20 ft 5 ft x CM of system Physics 111: Lecture 13.Lecture 13. and the center of the canoe ends up 5 ft to the right.

Pg 41 . 17. 77. 35. 29. 7.Recap of today’s lecture  Systems of particles (Text: 8-1)  Center of mass (Text: 8-1 & 12-6)  Velocity and acceleration of the center of mass (Text:8-3)  Dynamics of the center of mass  Linear Momentum  Example problems  Look at textbook problems Chapter 8: # 3. 111 (Text: 8-3 to 8-4) Physics 111: Lecture 13.