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Bandwidth Playbook

Thwarting Fiber-to-the-Home Competition


John J. Downey
Broadband Network Engineer
Cisco Systems
jdowney@cisco.com
DOCSIS Security

2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Agenda
Speeds and Feeds
Competitive Outlook (FiOS)
Objectives
Current & New Speed Offerings

Future Evolution Options


Cablevisions Choice
Configs
Cabling Ideas
Other Ideas

New Technology Cornerstones


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Speeds and Feeds

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Objectives
Use existing HFC network
Separation of tiers of service
Bandwidth usage monitoring/shaping
Security Issues - mitigate hackers
Number of subs per port
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Current and New Speed Offerings


Typically 1 tier at 3M DS by 384K US
MSOs using 1.1 to migrate to multiple tiers of service
Dial-up replacement 128K x 128K
Low to Med speed
1M x 256K or 3M x 384K
High speed
5-7M x 512-768K
Offerings from Verizon
10x2 Mbps, 20x5, & 30x5 FTTH
New residential & commercial offerings
15x2 - Cox
10x1, 15x2, 30x5 - CV
16x2 - Comcast
20x? - RCN

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Usage Patterns
Changing cap at same price may not have linear affect
Average usage may be less than extrapolated

Customers that use a lot of P2P services may look


more appealing to others outside network

Offering 15 Mbps at 100:1 oversell allows 200 subs/DS


& may be fine, but needs to be observed over time

Customers paying for higher cap could feel compelled to


get their moneys worth and use much more than previous
Usage could increase exponentially
Customers become more computer savvy

Other applications become prolific or just temporary

Equates to an over-subscription calculation that must be reevaluated and probably decreased

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DS Speed Affected by:


Usable rate and frame size
Modem
Config file, CPU (PPS), & Ethernet

Transport layer
TCP or UDP
US speeds & windowing affect TCP

Max DS burst - perception is reality


VoIP jitter?

Computer OS and Windows stack


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US Speed Affected by:


Rate limit & other traffic
DOCSIS Protocol
Map advance, DS interleaving & Modulation
Concatenation
Max concat & traffic burst settings
Modulation profiles
Fragmentation
DOCSIS 1.0 CM?
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Future Evolution Options

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Solutions
1. Do nothing and watch the competition
erode your subscriber base
2. Segment the fiber nodes
3. FTTC, FTTH(P), FTTWAP
4. Bonding US & DS DOCSIS channels
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Option 1 - Same CMTS with


Frequency Separation

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Option 1 - Same CMTS with Freq Separation


Map 2 DS freqs & 2 US Rxs into same node
Freq A serving Res subs & freq B serving new subs
Utilize 256-QAM on both DSs
36 Mbps per DS freq (depends on frame size)
Utilize 3.2 MHz CW/16-QAM on both USs
9 Mbps per US freq (depends on frame size)
US and/or DS load balance
Allow res subs to use under-utilized commercial US
Client-class processing "steers" Res subs to A & new
subs to B
Set DS freq and/or US Ch ID in CMs config file
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Separating CMs Through Client-Class Processing

Client Entries
PC X
MAC Address:
01:02:03:04:05:06

Cable Modem Y
MAC Address:
02:03:04:06:aa:06

Cable Modem X

ab:cd:ef:01:02:03

Modem Tag

Scopes
Scope
10.1.1.0
.2-.124

01:02:03:04:05:06

02:03:04:06:aa:06

CMTS

Res Modem Class


Modem Tag

...
..
..
.

MAC Address:
ab:cd:ef:01:02:03

Client Classes Scope


Tags

PC Class

PC Tag

scope
24.1.1.0
.125-.255

PC tag

Client Classes Scope


Tags
INET Modem Class
Modem Tag

Modem Tag

Scopes
Scope
10.2.2.0
.2-.124

Provisioning Server
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Option 1 - Separating CMs via FDM & Provisioning

DS0
U0

DS0 = 453 MHz @ 256-QAM


DS1 = 459 MHz @ 256-QAM

U1
U2
U3
DS1

U0 = 20.0 MHz @ 3.2 MHz


U0 = 23.2 MHz @ 3.2 MHz

U0
U1
U2
U3
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Option 1 - Questions to Answer


Multiple DSs broadcast because of EDFAs?
Broadcast makes it difficult to achieve 1:1 DSto-node combining later down the road

Nodes with 1 DS Rx & 2 US Txs?


Two DSs could be sent to node
1 US laser feeds US of 1 mac domain
2nd laser feeds US from other mac domain
US frequency re-use possible
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Option 1 Pros and Cons

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Option 1 - Pros
Provides simple "get up and run" approach
Only real modifications are:
Combining to map 2-4 USs to nodes
Ensure provisioning system steers them to proper
US ch
US and DS load balancing possible
Poor mans redundancy
Caution across cards - packet drops because no IM
alignment between cards
If using mixed mode, then 2.0 CMs could burst at 64QAM for ~ 13 Mbps
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Option 1 - Pros (cont)


2 DSs at 256-QAM = ~ 72 Mbps
2 USs at 16-QAM / 3.2 MHz = ~ 18 Mbps
Advanced phy features
Ingress cancellation and more FEC
24-tap EQ & US interleave
A/D conversion
5x20U has advanced spectrum management, remote
analyzing and per-CM FEC counters
Available with 12.3(13) IOS & >
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Option 1 - Cons
Requires combining work
Requires DS and US spectrum availability
Moving to new DS requires new US
Outage could make CMs register on
incorrect DS & affect registration times
CMs will need to be client-class processed
with info in their DOCSIS config files
What if an US port dies?
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Option 2 - Separate CMTSs

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Option 2 - Diagram
CMTS A

CMTS B

DS0

DS1

U0

U0

U1

U1

U2

U2

U3

U3

Map US/DS ports from 2nd CMTS into existing nodes


Connect 2nd CMTS to core network
Provision Commercial CMs to proper freq & CMTS
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Option 2 - Pros
Hardware Isolation
More processing power
Future expansion and poor-mans HA
Separates high speed customers for
NOC clarity
Some systems use this for open access or
to segregate Data form VoIP
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Option 2 - Cons
Second CMTS
Will CPU max out if one chassis dies?
More power draw & rack space in HE/hub
Must integrate 2nd chassis to network
Need address space for additional CMTS
CMs could lock on wrong CMTS & IP bundle
IP address depletion
Packet drops (no IM alignment between chassis)
CM offline on one CMTS & online on another
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Option 3 - Same as Option 1, but


Utilizing ATDMA

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Option 3 - Same CMTS Utilizing ATDMA


Utilize ATDMA-only US ports for Commercial CMs
Only allows 2.0 CMs to "see" US port & register
Existing Res subs are blind to ATDMA port
Don't understand mac message 29 included in UCD

Need to configure provisioning to block


Commercial CMs from registering on 1.x US port
Use provisioning to force specific DS freq or US Ch ID

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Option 3 - Diagram
DS0
U0
U1
U2
U3
DS1
U0

DS0/U0 = TDMA (1.x mode)

U1

DS1/U0 = ATDMA (2.0-only)

U2
U3

DOCSIS Security

Only allows 2.0 CMs to "see" DS1/U0


& register on it

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DOCSIS 2.0 Benefits

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DOCSIS 2.0 ATDMA Basics

Introduces docsis-mode concept:


TDMA (traditional 1.x mode)
ATDMA-TDMA (mixed 1.x and 2.0)
ATDMA (2.0-only)

Use cable upstream x docsis-mode {} to


configure US channel to a desired mode
Automatically picks a new default mod profile

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DOCSIS 2.0 Benefits


Greater spectral efficiency
Better use of existing channels
More capacity

Provides higher throughput in US direction


Per-CM speed greater with better PPS

Robust against worst-case plant impairments


Although not part of spec, ingress cancellation
allows higher orders of modulation
Opens unused portions of spectrum
Insurance for life-line services
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DOCSIS 2.0 Benefits


IUCs added for 1.x/2.0 mixed environment
9 = a-short, 10 = a-long, 11 = a-ugs

Better statistical multiplexing


6.4 MHz channel is better than 2, 3.2 channels

Increases US capacity to 30.72 Mbps


Enhances flexibility when used in
combination with Virtual Interfaces
1x1 MAC domain makes more sense
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DOCSIS 1.1 Phy Change (PRE-EQ)


US equalization is supported on all cards for 1.0 and 1.1
8-tap blind equalizer
1.1 allows 'pre-equalization' where EQ coefficients are
sent allowing a CM to pre-distort its signal
Cab up x equalization-coefficient
Supported on all linecards and releases that support 1.1
Requires 1.1 capable CMs, but not .cm file
Configurable option
2.0 increases the equalizer tap length from 8 to 24
Supported on U cards in ATDMA mode
Off by default
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Amplitude Ripple/Tilt

6.4 MHz ATDMA


signal exhibits
severe in-band
tilt at US port
Pre-EQ in CM
can compensate
for nearly all tilt

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Option 3 Pros and Cons

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Option 3 - Pros

Allows 2 stacked US channels


Only appears as one for Res customers

Allows less ports to be used since ATDMA


USs operate at 27 Mbps usable speed
If spectrum is available, 2.0 CMs could use a
6.4 MHz channel & 64-QAM, if clean enough

Leverages 1 CMTS thats already installed


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Option 3 - Cons
Requires new high speed users to have 2.0 CMs
Requires provisioning work to "block" 2.0 CMs from
registering on Res freq
If Res subs buy their own 2.0 CMs, they could lock to
commercial US w/o provisioning interdiction
Use TLV 39=0 for res CMs
Forces 1.x mode even if they are 2.0 capable
Cant utilize load balancing
Configure mixed-mode with utilization-based LB
May require dynamic freq hopping or mod changes
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Cablevisions Choice

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New Architecture Idea Using Option 3

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New Architecture Information


DS0-DS3 are 1x2 MAC domains Regular Tier
DS4 is 1x8 MAC domain Power Tier
USs use connector assignments & freq stacked
Boost Configuration:
US: Up to 27 Mbps per node
DS: ~25 Mbps @ 64-QAM or ~35 Mbps @ 256-QAM
per 8 nodes

Could be further segmented down to 4 nodes


4 US ports not used
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Questions to Answer
Back-office procedures & implementation,
what happens when:

New CM registers on wrong DS


Catastrophic failure on entire node
Residential sub buys their own 2.0 CM
CMs move between DSs and/or US ports

Physical implementation
Is DS spectrum available for 256-QAM
Can US laser handle multiple carriers and
higher modulation schemes
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CMTS Configuration

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Lab Testing Procedures and Verification


uBR10k with PRE1 running 12.3(9a)BC4
Verified the following features:
Dual DS and US frequency to same node
Virtual Interfaces
ATDMA-only US
Frequency Stacking
1x2 and 1x8 MAC domain
CM config file with specific DS freq configured
Used Cablevisions CMTS config as much as possible
Broadband Access Center for Cable (BACC) used for
provisioning, DHCP, ToD and TFTP
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CMTS Linecard Configuration


interface Cable8/1/0
cable downstream modulation 256qam
cable downstream frequency 603000000
cable downstream channel-id 0
cable downstream rf-power 58
cable upstream max-ports 2
cable upstream 0 connector 0 shared
cable upstream 0 frequency 25008000
cable upstream 0 channel-width 3200000
cable upstream 0 minislot-size 2
cable upstream 0 modulation-profile 23
no cable upstream 0 shutdown
cable upstream 1 connector 2 shared
cable upstream 1 frequency 25008000
cable upstream 1 channel-width 3200000
cable upstream 1 minislot-size 2
cable upstream 1 modulation-profile 23
no cable upstream 1 shutdown
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interface Cable8/1/4
cable downstream modulation 256qam
cable downstream frequency 609000000
cable downstream channel-id 4
cable downstream rf-power 58
cable upstream max-ports 8
cable upstream 0 connector 0 shared
cable upstream 0 frequency 28496000
cable upstream 0 channel-width 3200000
cable upstream 0 minislot-size 2
cable upstream 0 modulation-profile 23
no cable upstream 0 shutdown
cable upstream 1 connector 2 shared
cable upstream 1 frequency 28496000
cable upstream 1 docsis-mode atdma
cable upstream 1 channel-width 3200000
cable upstream 1 minislot-size 2
cable upstream 1 modulation-profile 221
no cable upstream 1 shutdown
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Configuration (cont)
interface Cable8/1/1

interface Cable8/1/4

cable downstream modulation 256qam

cable downstream modulation 256qam

cable downstream frequency 603000000

cable downstream frequency 609000000

cable downstream channel-id 1

cable downstream channel-id 4

cable downstream rf-power 58

cable downstream rf-power 58

cable upstream max-ports 2

cable upstream max-ports 8

cable upstream 0 connector 4 shared

cable upstream 2 connector 4 shared

cable upstream 0 frequency 25008000

cable upstream 2 frequency 28496000

cable upstream 0 channel-width 3200000

cable upstream 2 channel-width 3200000

cable upstream 0 minislot-size 2

cable upstream 2 minislot-size 2

cable upstream 0 modulation-profile 23

cable upstream 2 modulation-profile 23

no cable upstream 0 shutdown

no cable upstream 2 shutdown

cable upstream 1 connector 6 shared

cable upstream 3 connector 6 shared

cable upstream 1 frequency 25008000

cable upstream 3 frequency 28496000

cable upstream 1 channel-width 3200000

cable upstream 3 channel-width 3200000

cable upstream 1 minislot-size 2

cable upstream 3 minislot-size 2

cable upstream 1 modulation-profile 23

cable upstream 3 modulation-profile 23

no cable upstream 1 shutdown

no cable upstream 3 shutdown

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Concerns
IP Address Implications
How to prevent IP address exhaust during
ranging onto incorrect DS freq
CM issues with multiple DS & US freqs?
Long time to register (CMs cache DS freq)
Power level when 2nd US freq added?
CMTS performs pwr on per-US freq & CW
Analog front-end could overload & cause
harmonics
Per-CM speeds
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Concerns (cont)
Maybe laser clipping from adding additional
freqs and higher modulation schemes
How to scale 1x8 and 1x2 MAC domains as
utilization increases?
Take into account RF connections,
provisioning, etc.

Bandpass filters in plant


US diplex filter range
5-30, 5-40/42, 5-55, 5-65,
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Another Idea to Utilize All JIBs


MC5x20
1x8

1x2

DSs 0-3 = 603 MHz


DS 4 = 609 MHz

DS0

U0/C0

DS4

U0/C0
U1/C2
U2/C4
U3/C16
U4/C8
U5/C10
U6/C12
U7/C18
All USs at
28.5 MHz
DOCSIS Security

U1/C2

DS Splitter

1x2 DS1

DS Combiner

U0/C4

US Splitter

U1/C16

Requires:

1x2 DS2

2 DS frequencies

U0/C8

2 US freqs in each node


One US freq per DS

U1/C10

1x2

DS3

4 US ports not used

U0/C12
U1/C18

All USs at 25 MHz

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Using All US Ports (4, 1x3s and 1, 1x8)


MC5x20
1x8

1x3

DSs 0-3 = 453 MHz


DS 4 = 459 MHz

DS0

U0&1/C0

DS4

U4/C2
U5/C6
U6/C10
U7/C14
U0/C16
U1/C17
U2/C18
U3/C19
All USs at
28.5 MHz
DOCSIS Security

U2/C2

DS Splitter

1x3 DS1

DS Combiner

U0&1/C4

US Splitter

U2/C6

Requires:
2 DS freqs

1x3 DS2
U0&1/C8

3 US freqs in some nodes


and only 2 in others

U2/C10

1x3 DS3
U0&1/C12
U2/C14

All USs at 25 MHz

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47

Cabling Ideas

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Maxnet II Picts

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Maxnet II Picts

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Maxnet II Cabling

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One RF Switch Option


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 P1 P2

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8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

52

New Technology Cornerstones

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Cisco uBR10012 Hardware


PRE1 and PRE2 Specifications
PRE1

PRE2

Benchmark PPS

2.8 Mpps

6.2 Mpps

RP Memory Size

512 MB

1024 MB

FP Memory Size

1024 MB

1024 MB

Packet Buffer

128 MB

256 MB

CM / STB support *

Up to 45K

64K +

Toaster Processors

32

64

RP Clock

267 MHz

500 MHz

Toaster Clock

100 MHz

150 MHz

Line Card Interconnect

1.6 Gb/s

3.2 Gb/s

* Dependant upon features enabled


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New Technology Cornerstones


DOCSIS 3.0
Channel Bonding for higher capacity links
Enable faster HSD service
M x N mac domains now
Enable Video over IP solutions

M-CMTS
New Architecture for better economics
Lower cost DS PHY
De-couple DS and US ports

DOCSIS 2.0b
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uBR10012 Wideband Components


WB SIP
WB
SPA

uBR10012 Base System


WAN INTERFACE

4x HH-GE

ROUTING ENGINE

2x PRE2 @6 Mpps
RP Redundancy

DOCSIS CARDS

EXTERNAL EDGE QAM


Off-the-shelf VoD QAM

8x MC5X20
40 DS / 160 US ports per Chassis

uBR10012 Wideband Kit


WIDEBAND SIP
uBR1001
2

DOCSIS Security

WIDEBAND SPA

1 WB SIP/Chassis 2x WB-SPA per Chassis


2 WAN Slots
1Gbps/SPA (~24 QAMs/SPA)
2x WB SPA/WB SIP Redundant GE Output (SFP)
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Linksys Wideband Cable Modem WCM300


Performance and Throughput
220 Mbps Wideband DS throughput
30 Mbps US throughput

RF Characteristics
DS frequency range: 108 MHz 850 MHz
US frequency range: 5 MHz 65 or 88 MHz
DS capture range = 48 MHz
8 channels: Annex B, 6 channels Annex A
Channels do not need to be contiguous

Compatibility
Supports Packet Bonding
Interoperable in a DOCSIS 3.0 environment
Full DOCSIS 2.0 capable
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uBR10012 Architecture Evolution

uBR10012

Today
DOCSIS Security

Wideband
Architecture

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M-CMTS &
DOCSIS 3.0
58

Future-Proofing

HHGE cards
12.3(9)

MCX cards
M-CMTS architecture

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Design 1: 2 WB Channels per 8 Nodes

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Boost Configuration is unchanged


Wideband Configuration
US: Up to 27 Mbps per node shared w/ Boost
DS: ~50 Mbps per 8 nodes at 64-QAM
DS: ~70 Mbps per 8 nodes at 256-QAM 60

Expanding Bandwidth to Design 1- Four WB


Channels per 8 Nodes

Boost Downstream added to Wideband BG


Boost USs added into 1x2 MAC domain (LB)
US: Up to 6x27 Mbps per node (LB) shared w/ Optimum
DS: ~100 Mbps per 8 nodes at 64-QAM
DS: ~140 Mbps per 8 nodes at 256-QAM
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Design 2: 6 WB Channels per 8 Nodes

DOCSIS Security

Wideband Configuration
US: Up to 27 Mbps per node shared w/ Boost
DS: ~150 Mbps per 8 nodes at 64-QAM
DS: ~210 Mbps per 8 nodes at 256-QAM
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62

Other Commercial Offerings


T1/E1 offerings (CEoIP or BSoD)
PCMM
DOCSIS WIC
MPLS-VPN / L2VPN
BoD
RS-DVR, Start-over & Lookback
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CESoIP Config File


03 (Net Access Control) = Yes
22 (Upstream Packet Classification Block)
S01 (Classifier Reference) = 1
S03 (Flow Reference) = 2
S05 (Rule Priority) = 1
S06 (Activation State) = 1
S09 (IP Packet Classification)
T02 (IP Protocol) = 257
T07 (Source Port Start) = 2142
T08 (Source Port End) = 2142
T09 (Destination Port Start) = 2142
T10 (Destination Port End) = 2142
23 (Downstream Packet Classification Block)
S01 (Classifier Reference) = 2
S03 (Flow Reference) = 5
S05 (Rule Priority) = 1
S06 (Activation State) = 1
S09 (IP Packet Classification)
T02 (IP Protocol) = 257
T07 (Source Port Start) = 2142
T08 (Source Port End) = 2142
T09 (Destination Port Start) = 2142
T10 (Destination Port End) = 2142
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24 (Upstream Service Flow Block)


S01 (Flow Reference) = 1
S06 (QoS Parameter Set Type) = 7
S07 (Traffic Priority) = 3
S08 (Max Sustained Traffic Rate) = 2000000
S15 (Service Flow Scheduling Type) = 2
24 (Upstream Service Flow Block)
S01 (Flow Reference) = 2
S06 (QoS Parameter Set Type) = 7
S15 (Service Flow Scheduling Type) = 6
S16 (Request/Transmission Policy) = 511
S19 (Unsolicited Grant Size) = 1052
S20 (Nominal Grant Interval) = 10000
S21 (Tolerated Grant Interval) = 2000
S22 (Grant/Interval) = 2
25 (Downstream Service Flow Block)
S01 (Flow Reference) = 4
S06 (QoS Parameter Set Type) = 7
S07 (Traffic Priority) = 3
S08 (Max Sustained Traffic Rate) = 2000000
25 (Downstream Service Flow Block)
S01 (Flow Reference) = 5
S06 (QoS Parameter Set Type) = 7
S07 (Traffic Priority) = 5
S08 (Max Sustained Traffic Rate) = 1700000
29 (Privacy Enable) = yes
64

Cable HWIC/WIC Overview


Enabling Cable Commercial Services with Cisco ISR
Broadcom DOCSIS 2.0
CM daughter card

Cable HWIC/WIC will deliver DOCSIS 2.0 &


EuroDocsis/J-Docsis compliant HFC
interface (Cable)
Utilizing Broadcom chipset
Dual mode, able to operate as WIC or HWIC
Packetcable Multimedia Support
DOCSIS QoS & IOS router QoS interaction
Offering 2 SKUs + Fixed-config cable
router
Modular Platform support:
1841, 2800, 3800, IAD243x

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2691, 3700 (post FCS)

65

Cable HWIC/WIC (cont)


Additional Features (post FCS):
Multiple Cable HWIC support per router
TDM clock sync with DOCSIS clock
Program Update
Customer Beta in progress at:
Cox, TWC, Sprint, Charter, Bresnan, UPC
Broadband & Essent Kablecom
Performance evaluation
CableLabs cert: Cable HWIC + ISR submit in July, 06
Tcomlabs cert for EuroDocsis: targeting Aug, 2006
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Cisco 815 Fixed-Config Cable Router


Key Features
4 Port Managed
10/100 Switch

Console
Port

Integrated DOCSIS 2.0 CM WIC


Cable WIC

Integrated 4 Port 10/100 Managed


Switch

IEEE 802.1Q VLAN


Spanning Tree

One additional Fast Ethernet Port

WAN backup, DMZ

IOS Advanced Routing and QoS


10/100
Port

AUX
Port

RIP, OSPF, BGP, EIGRP

Optional Upgrade:

Replacement for uBR905!


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VPN/Firewall/IPS/Easy VPN Security


IPSec 3DES Hardware Acceleration

67

Cisco 815 & uBR905 Comparison

Cable Modem
LAN
10/100 WAN Backup
802.1Q VLAN
Advanced Routing,
QoS
Security

uBR905

Cisco 815

DOCSIS 1.1

DOCSIS 2.0

4-Port 10T Hub

4-Port 10/100
Managed Switch

No

Ext. Dial Backup

No

Yes (16 VLANs)

RIP, Basic QoS

RIP, OSPF, BGP, Adv


QoS

IPSec VPN, FW,


EZVPN

IPSec VPN, FW, IPS,


EZVPN, DMVPN, NAC

4-5 Mbps

8 Mbps (target)

IPSec VPN
DOCSIS Security

2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

68

Multiservice Capabilities

Cable Access Router Portfolio


Complete Offerings for Cable Operators
Cable HWIC can be
used with 12
different modular
router models

3700/3800 w/
Cable HWIC

IAD243x w/
Cable HWIC

2691/2800 w/
Cable HWIC

1841 w/
Cable HWIC
815 Fixed Config
SMB/Small Branch

SOHO

Primary WAN
DOCSIS Security

2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Enterprise Branch

Primary WAN, WAN Backup, WAN offload


69

Summary
Separation of tiers of service
Math & new designs are beginning steps
Monitor actual traffic load and manage fair
use of network
Bandwidth usage monitoring/shaping
Determine when additional capacity is
necessary
DOCSIS Security

2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

70

DOCSIS Security

2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

71