Research Methods in Computing

and Technology
CT098-3.5-2

Survey

Topic & Structure of the lesson




Empirical Research
Questionnaire / Survey
Key issues in considering survey research
Types of questionnaire
Designing individual questions
– Types of questions
– Layout of questionnaire

CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology

02 Research & Literature Searches

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches . you should be able to: • Understand the need for empirical research • Identify key issues involved in survey / questionnaire • Know the types of questionnaires / surveys • Design a typical questionnaire / survey for your final year project CT098-3.Learning Outcomes At the end of this topic.

2006) CT098-3.Empirical Research • Gathering data from the world beyond the university – the so-called real world • Research that finds out from the world and provides experience that the researcher / developer can use to achieve better understanding of that world (Condford & Smithson.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches . Zoomerang CT098-3. WebSurveyor.Questionnaires & Surveys • When to use? – When researcher wants to obtain views or data from a large number of organisations or individuals in a limited time period – For descriptive or explanatory research – With other data collection methods • How to distribute? – – – – – Post Hand Fax E-mail Online – SurveyMonkey.

Key issues in considering survey research Effort Required Poor response CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology Structure of questions Developing sampling frame 02 Research & Literature Searches Biasness Limited to well understood topics Need to pilot .

producing and distributing is considerable – Need to go through 3 – 4 iterations before reaching a satisfactory design – Problems in response rate – need to send out a large number – Follow up procedure to improve response rate – Create huge mailing list – Pre-test the questionnaire – Enter data once it is entered CT098-3.Key issues in considering survey research • In designing.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .

with management support – higher response rate CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches . response rate is about 20% • If distributed internally to an organisation’s workforce.Key issues in considering survey research • If sent at random to people in business or organisations.

Key issues in considering survey research • Difficult to formulate questions that are – Clear.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches . Unambiguous and easy for respondents to understand – Free of unnecessary assumptions – Free of jargon – Comprehensive – covers every possible case – Answerable directly without having to seek out information • Difficult to select scales for questions that require graded response CT098-3.

Key issues in considering survey research • Responses – small – likely to be from biased sample • Enthusiasts will predominate and those with less enthusiasm may not be motivated to complete questionnaire • Cannot assume the response is a representation of the population • Inaccurate replies – errraneous affirmative answers “Does your company use IT strategically?” CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .Key issues in considering survey research • Suitable for certain fairly straightforward topics – Not highly abstract. complex or poorly understood topics CT098-3.

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .Key issues in considering survey research • Purpose – To refine the questionnaire – no problems in answering and no problems in recording the data – To assess the validity and reliability of the questionnaire • How? Preliminary pilot testing – Ask experts to comment on representativeness and suitability of questions – Allow suggestions to be made .structure CT098-3.

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .Key issues in considering survey research • How many? – Sufficient to include any major variations – affect the responses – Student questionnaires – 10 – Large surveys – 100 – 200 • What to check for? – Did the respondents have problems understanding / answering questions? – Have the respondents followed all instructions correctly? CT098-3.

if any. if any.Key issues in considering survey research • Provide a further short questionnaire – How long did it take to complete the questionnaire? – Were the instructions clear? – Which.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches . questions were unclear / ambiguous? – Which. questions the respondent felt uneasy about answering? – Were there any major topic omissions? – Was the layout clear and attractive? CT098-3.

Types of questionnaire Self Administered • Internet-mediated questionnaire • Postal questionnaire • Delivery and collection questionnaire CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology Interviewer Administered • Telephone questionnaire • Structured Interview 02 Research & Literature Searches .

Designing individual questions • Adopt / Adapt questions used in other questionnaires – If want to replicate / compare findings with another study .assess reliability – More efficient (provided maps with research questions and objectives) – questions and coding schemes may meet needs – Beware of poor questions – Beware of copyright – Give credit to the author • Develop own questions CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology Closed questions 02 Research & Literature Searches .Types of questions Open questions CT098-3.

Types of questions Types of questions Open questions Objective CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology Subjective Closed questions Speculative 02 Research & Literature Searches .

Types of questions Types of questions Open questions List Category CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology Closed questions Ranking Rating Quantity Likert-style Numeric Rating Scale Semantic Differential Scale 02 Research & Literature Searches Grid .

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .Layout of questionnaire • Interviewer administered questionnaire – make reading questions and filling responses easy • Self administered questionnaire – – Attractive – to encourage people to fill it in and to return – Not appearing too long • Visual appearance – professional • Wording – simple CT098-3.

Question and Answer Session Q&A CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches . Which would you choose and why? CT098-3.Quick Review Question Compare the various types of sampling you could use in selecting your respondents for a survey.

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .For next class • Select a sample questionnaire for the internet – Observe the best practices – Improve on the flaws CT098-3.

Question and Answer Session Q&A CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .