# Research Methods in Computing

and Technology
CT098-3.5-2

DATA ANALYSIS

Topic & Structure of the lesson
• Analysing Quantitative Data
– Techniques
– Considerations for quantitative data analysis

CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology

02 Research & Literature Searches

Learning Outcomes
At the end of this topic, you should be able to:
• Explain quantitative data and quantitative
analysis techniques
• Describe the various considerations for
quantitative data analysis

CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology

02 Research & Literature Searches

Quantitative Data

Raw form
Convey little meaning to most people
Numerical data
Should help to
– Meet research objectives

• Needs to be analysed and interpreted –
quantitative analysis techniques
CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology

02 Research & Literature Searches

Quantitative Analysis Techniques
• Examples:
– Creating simple tables or diagrams that show
frequency of occurrence
– Use statistics to enable comparisons
– Complex statistical modelling

CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology

02 Research & Literature Searches

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .CT098-3.

Considerations for quantitative analysis • Type of data • Format data will be input to the analysis software – layout • Impact of data coding on subsequent analyses • Need to weigh cases • Methods used to check data for errors CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .

Type of data Categorical Descriptive CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology Quantifiable Ranked Internal / Ratio Data 02 Research & Literature Searches Continuous / Discrete Data .

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .Categorical Data • cannot be measured numerically • can be classified into sets (categories) according to characteristics • can be placed in rank order • can further be subdivided into descriptive (nominal data) and ranked (ordinal data) CT098-3.

of occurrences in each category • Categories should be unambiguous / discrete • If only 2 categories : male / female – “dichotomous data” CT098-3.Descriptive Data • Aka nominal data • Eg: Categorising Cars • Impossible to define category numerically / rank it • Counts the no.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .

Ranked Data • • • • Aka ordinal data More precise form of categorical data Know the relative position of each case Eg: Ranking / scale questions CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology Quantifiable Ranked Internal / Ratio Data 02 Research & Literature Searches Continuous / Discrete Data .Type of data Categorical Descriptive CT098-3.

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .Quantifiable Data • Values are measured numerically as quantities • More precise than categorical • Can assign each data value a position on a numerical scale CT098-3.

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .5 degrees warmer • Ratio data: Last year = RM3 m This year = RM6 m Ratio = double CT098-3.Interval / Ratio Data • Interval data : Yesterday = 20 deg C Today = 30 deg C Difference = 10 deg C not 1.

Continuous / Discrete Data • Continuous data : – values that can take any value – Eg: length of service. temperature of furnace.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches . • Discrete data : – can be measured precisely – Eg: no. of customers CT098-3.

• What factors determine the most appropriate statistical techniques? • Research objectives / questions / purpose of your study • Measurement scales you used in your research instrument • Research design of your studies. CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .

Quick Review Question • Differentiate between • • • • Interval and ratio data Continuous and discrete data Descriptive and ranked data Provide appropriate examples to illustrate the differences CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .

Data Layout • Data is usually stored in matrix / table format CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .

g. Salary – entered as quantifiable discrete data – then re-coded as categorical ranked data CT098-3.Coding • All data types should be recorded using numerical codes – Quicker – use numeric keypad – less errors – Subsequent analyses more straightforward • Coding quantifiable data – Actual numbers are used – Recoding – e.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .

Coding • Coding categorical data – Need to design and use a coding scheme • encouraged to use existing coding scheme. Why? – Saves time – Normally well tested – Allows comparisons with other (larger) surveys – Include on data collection form as pre-set codes (limit the number of categories) CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .

Coding • Coding after data collection .5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .necessary – unclear of likely responses – Large number of possible responses in the coding scheme • Codebook = develop coding scheme after collecting from 50 – 100 cases CT098-3.

Coding • Coding missing data – Used to indicate why data are missing • Data optional – not required from every participant – skip generated by a filter question • Non-response – respondent refuse to answer • Respondent did not know the answer / have an opinion • Respondent missed a question by mistake • Respondent’s answer unclear CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .

Coding – Special code for missing data – different codes for different reasons for missing data – Not missing data – leaving part of a question in a survey blank indicates an answer CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .GIGO • Data analysis software – algorithms that check the data for obvious errors – Allows researcher to attach labels to each variables and the codes associated with each of them • Reduces misinterpretation when analysing data CT098-3.Entering data • Ensure data entered correctly .

Checking for errors • Methods to check data for errors: – illegitimate codes • only certain numbers are allocated. Others = errors • Use o or O instead of 0 (zero) – Illogical relationships • Higher managerial occupation – manual work – Rules in filter questions • Other responses should be coded as missing data CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .

Weighting cases 1. Calculate the % of the population responding for each stratum 2. Calculate weight for each stratum: highest proportion population responding for any stratum /proportion of population responding in stratum for which calculating weight 4. Establish which stratum has the highest % of the population responding 3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches . Apply the appropriate weight to each case CT098-3.

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .Quick Review Question Describe what a researcher would need to consider when doing a quantitative analysis CT098-3.

To show specific values CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .To show highest and lowest (categorical and discrete data) CT098-3.

To show highest and lowest (categorical and discrete data) CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .

To show highest and lowest (continuous data) Histograms with even class intervals CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .

To show highest and lowest (continuous data) Histograms with uneven class intervals CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .To show highest and lowest (continuous data) Frequency polygon CT098-3.

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .To show trend Line graph CT098-3.

To show proportions Pie Chart CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .

To show distribution (Continuous data) Frequency polygon CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology Histogram 02 Research & Literature Searches .

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology Bar chart 02 Research & Literature Searches .To show distribution (Discrete data) Frequency polygon CT098-3.

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .Positively / Negatively Skewed CT098-3.

Symmetrically Skewed (Normal Distribution) CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .Box plot CT098-3.

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .Comparing variables – show specific values and interdependence Contingency table / cross-tabulation CT098-3.

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology Multiple bar chart 02 Research & Literature Searches .Comparing variables – compare highest and lowest values CT098-3.

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .Comparing variables – compare proportions Percentage component bar chart CT098-3.

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology Multiple line graph 02 Research & Literature Searches .Comparing variables – compare trends CT098-3.

Comparing variables – compare totals CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology Stacked bar chart 02 Research & Literature Searches .

Comparing variables – compare proportions and totals Comparative Proportional Pie Charts CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .Comparing variables – compare distribution of values Multiple frequency polygons CT098-3.

Comparing variables – compare distribution of values Multiple bar charts CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .Comparing variables – compare distribution of values Multiple box plots CT098-3.

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .Comparing variables – show relationship between cases for variables Scatter graph CT098-3.

Quick Review Question Explain when and why you would use each of the following charts / graphs / tables when analysing quantitative data: – Scatter graph – Multiple frequency polygons – Contingency table – Stacked bar chart – Histogram CT098-3.5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .

5-2 Research Methods in Computing & Technology 02 Research & Literature Searches .Question and Answer Session Q&A CT098-3.