Applications of Remote

Sensing

Intro
• As we learned before, each sensor is
designed with a specific purpose. With
optical sensors, the design focuses on the
spectral bands to be collected. With radar
imaging,
the
incidence
angle
and
microwave band used plays an important
role in defining which applications the
sensor is best suited for.
• Each application itself has specific
demands, for spectral resolution, spatial
resolution, and temporal resolution.

Info for Image Interpretation • Multispectral data • Multi sensor data • Multi temporal data .

Applications • Many fields of applications • Some will be highlighted as – Agriculture – Forestry – Geology – Hydrology – Sea Ice – Land Cover & Land Use – Mapping – Oceans & Coastal Monitoring – GIS .

it plays a significant role in almost every nation .Agriculture • Represents a substantial trading industry for an economically strong country or simply sustenance for a hungry. overpopulated one.

Agriculture • Agricultural applications of remote sensing include the following: – – – – crop type classification crop condition assessment crop yield estimation mapping of soil characteristics – mapping of soil management practices – compliance monitoring (farming practices) .

wildlife habitat. and daily supplies such as medicinal ingredients and paper • Forests play an important role in balancing the Earth's CO2 supply . shelter.Forestry • Forests are a valuable resource providing food. fuel.

and monitoring of health and growth for effective commercial exploitation and conservation. virtually global in scale . and so extracting wood is a wide-spread and historical practice. land conversion). burning.Forestry • The main issues concerning forest management are depletion due to natural causes (fires and infestations) or human activity (clear-cutting. • Humans generally consider the products of forests useful. rather than the forests themselves.

depletion monitoring. and measuring biophysical properties of forest stands.Forestry • Forestry applications of remote sensing include the following – Reconnaissance mapping: Objectives to be met by national forest/environment agencies include forest cover updating. • forest cover type discrimination • agro forestry mapping .

– – – – – – clear cut mapping / regeneration assessment burn delineation infrastructure mapping / operations support forest inventory biomass estimation species inventory . and biomass measurements. broad forest type. vegetation density.Forestry • Commercial forestry: Of importance to commercial forestry companies and to resource management agencies are inventory and mapping applications: collecting harvest information. updating of inventory information for timber supply.

Forestry • Environmental monitoring : Conservation authorities are concerned with monitoring the quantity. – deforestation – species inventory – watershed protection – coastal protection (mangrove forests) . and diversity of the Earth's forests. health.

to understand physical processes creating and modifying the earth's crust • Remote sensing is used as a tool to extract information about the land surface structure. but is often combined with other data sources providing complementary measurements • Multispectral data can provide information on lithology or rock composition based on spectral reflectance • Radar provides an expression of surface topography and roughness. especially when integrated with another data source to provide detailed relief. . and the subsurface. structures. and thus is extremely valuable. composition or subsurface.Geology • Geology involves the study of landforms.

Geology • Geological applications remote sensing include following:- of the – surficial deposit / bedrock mapping – lithological mapping – structural mapping – sand and gravel (aggregate) exploration/ exploitation – mineral exploration – hydrocarbon exploration – environmental geology – sedimentation mapping and monitoring – event mapping and monitoring – geo-hazard mapping .

Hydrology • Hydrology is the study of water on the Earth's surface. since water is a vital component in each of these disciplines . frozen in ice or snow. agriculture and land cover. particularly forestry. or retained by soil • Hydrology is inherently related to many other applications of remote sensing. whether flowing above ground.

– glacier dynamics monitoring – river /delta change detection – drainage basin mapping and watershed modeling – irrigation canal leakage detection – irrigation scheduling . – measuring snow thickness. – soil moisture estimation. – river and lake ice monitoring. – flood mapping and monitoring. – snow pack monitoring / delineation of extent.Hydrology • Examples of hydrological applications include: – wetlands mapping and monitoring.

and global climate change studies • Its extensive distribution means that sea ice plays a large role in the albedo of the earth • Albedo is a term referring to the measure of reflectivity of the Earth's surface . Coast Guard and construction operations.Sea Ice • Ice covers a substantial part of the Earth's surface and is a major factor in commercial shipping and fishing industries.

thereby potentially increasing the warming trend • Of course these potential changes in sea ice distribution are of concern to scientists studying global climate change. as are sea ice interactions with the ocean and atmosphere. Under warming conditions. the ice would melt. . and less incoming energy would be reflected.Sea Ice • Ice and snow are highly reflective and changes in their distribution would affect how much solar energy is absorbed by the earth.

Sea Ice • Examples of sea ice information and applications include: – ice concentration – ice type / age /motion – iceberg detection and tracking – surface topography – tactical identification of leads: navigation: safe shipping routes/rescue – wildlife habitat – pollution monitoring – meteorological / global change research .

and planning activities . delineating and mapping land cover is important for global monitoring studies. their actual meanings are quite distinct • Land cover refers to the surface cover on the ground.Land Cover & Land Use • Although the terms land cover and land use are often used interchangeably. resource management. bare soil or other • Identifying. urban infrastructure. whether vegetation. water.

for example. since timely information is required to know what current quantity of land is in what type of use and to identify the land use changes from year to year . wildlife habitat. or agriculture • Land use applications involve both baseline mapping and subsequent monitoring. recreation.Land Cover & Land Use • Land use refers to the purpose the land serves.

identification of landing strips. seismic. bridges. roads. land/water interface . flooding. fire) – legal boundaries for tax and property evaluation – target detection .Land Cover & Land Use • Land use applications of remote sensing include the following: – natural resource management – wildlife habitat protection – urban expansion / encroachment – routing and logistics planning for seismic / exploration / resource extraction activities – damage delineation (tornadoes. volcanic.

evaluating. • Thematic. particularly if digitally integrated into a geographic information system as an information base . or land use management. which may then be combined with thematic information. urban areas. for military or civilian reconnaissance.Mapping • Mapping constitutes an integral component of the process of managing land resources. and administrative boundaries can be presented spatially with respect to referenced co-ordinate systems. and mapped information is the common product of analysis of remotely sensed data. and topographic maps are essential for planning. • Natural features and manufactured infrastructures. and monitoring. such as transportation networks.

Mapping • Mapping applications of remote sensing include the following: – planimetry – digital elevation models (DEM's) – Thematic mapping / topographic mapping .

eddies. regional circulation patterns etc • frontal zones.Oceans & Coastal Monitoring • Ocean applications of remote sensing include the following – Ocean pattern identification: • currents. shallow water bathymetry . internal waves. gravity waves.

phytoplankton concentration and drift • aquaculture inventory and monitoring .Oceans & Coastal Monitoring • Ocean applications of remote sensing include the following – Storm forecasting • wind and wave retrieval – Fish stock and marine mammal assessment • water temperature monitoring • water quality • ocean productivity.

Oceans & Coastal Monitoring • Ocean applications of remote sensing include the following – Oil spill • • • mapping and predicting oil spill extent and drift strategic support for oil spill emergency response decisions identification of natural oil seepage areas for exploration .

Oceans & Coastal Monitoring • Ocean applications of remote sensing include the following – Shipping • navigation routing • traffic density studies • operational fisheries surveillance • near-shore bathymetry mapping .

Oceans & Coastal Monitoring • Ocean applications of remote sensing include the following – Intertidal zone • tidal and storm effects • delineation of the land /water interface • mapping shoreline features / beach dynamics • coastal vegetation mapping • human activity / impact .

Thanks .