A. Siswanto

Life Without Stress Would be


Stress is an unavoidable part of
our life and work.
Most psychologists agree that
stress is good for us if we don’t
get more than we can handle,
and if learn how to respond to

What Is Stress ?

Stress is an adaptive response to a
situation that is perceived as challenging
or threatening to the person’s well being.
We experience stress when something is
perceived to interfere with our well being,
that is, with our need fulfillment.

What Is Stress ?

People are stressed from over work,
job insecurity, information overload,
and the increasing pace of life.
These events produce distress --the degree of physiological,
psychological, and behavioral
deviation from healthy functioning.

called eustress. constructive outcome of stressful events and the stress response. that refers to the healthy. .What Is Stress ?  There is also a positive side of stress. positive.

we need some stress to survive. However. • In other words. because it is a significant concern in organizational settings. most research focuses on distress. and succeed in life’s challenges. enough to activate and motivate people so that they can achieve goal. .• Eustress is the stress experience in moderation. change their environments.

General Adaptation Syndrome   Selye determined that people have a fairly consistent physiological response to stressful situations. . The three stages of the general adaptation syndrome are alarm reaction. provide an automatic defense system to help us cope with environmental demands. This response. resistance. and exhaustion. called the general adaptation syndrome.

In the alarm reaction stage. . heartbeat.GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME 1. and muscle tension. the perception of a threatening or challenging situation causes the brain to send a biochemical massage to various parts of the body. resulting in increased respiration rate. Alarm Reaction. as well as other physiological responses. blood pressure.

Alarm Reaction (cont’d) At first. the individual’s energy level and coping effectiveness decrease in response to initial shock.General Adaptation Sydrome 1. . Extreme shock. however. may result in incapacity or death because the body is unable to generate energy quickly enough.

.General Adaptation Syndrome 2. Resistance The person’s ability to cope with the environmental demand rises above the normal state during the resistance stage because the body has activated various biochemical. and behavioral mechanisms. psychological.

However. which gives us more energy to overcome or remove the source of stress. we have a higher than normal level of adrenalin during this stage. Resistance (cont’d) For example. our resistance is directed to only one or two environmental demands. . so we become more vulnerable to other sources of stress.General Adaptation Syndrome 2.

which gives us more energy to overcome or remove the source of stress. we have a higher than normal level of adrenalin during this stage. Resistance (continued) For example. . our resistance is directed to only one or two environmental demands. This situation explains with people are more likely to catch a cold or other illness when they have been under pressure. However.General Adaptation Syndrome 2. so we become more vulnerable to other sources of stress.

they will eventually move into the exhaustion stage as this capacity diminishes. Exhaustion People have a limited resistance capacity.General Adaptation Syndrome 3. and if the source of stress persists. .

.GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME 3. or they withdraw from the stressful situation. rebuilt their survival capabilities. the general adaptation syndrome process ends long before total exhaustion. Employees resolve tense situations before the destructive consequences of stress become manifest. Exhaustion (cont’d) In most work situations. and return later to the stressful environment with renewed energy.

but this is only part of the picture. people who frequently experience the general adaptation syndrome have increased risk of long-term physiological and psychological damage. The general adaptation syndrome describes the stress experience.GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME Exhaustion (continued)   However. . we must understand its causes and consequences as well as individual differences in the stress experience. To effectively manage work-related stress.

. • He defined stress as the reaction of the organism to a threatening situation. and distinguished between the stressor as the external cause and stress as the reaction of the human body.What Is Stress ? • The term stress was introduced by the Canadian Selye after World War II in the field of medicine.

. beginning with an excitation in the brain stem. since they keep the whole organism in a state of heightened alertness. especially of adrenalin and noradrenalin.What Is Stress ? Selye had discovered that stress was essentially a change of neuroendocrine mechanisms. known as “performance hormones”. followed by an increased secretion of some hormones from the adrenal gland.

can be determine in the urine. • It was said that an increase in stimulation of the reticular formation is accompanied by an increase in heart rate and blood pressure as well as by an increased sugar level and metabolism. • This reaction is called the “ergotropic tuningup” and is essentially identical with the basic mechanisms of the stress reaction. and this is still a possible way of determining stress.What Is Stress ? • These performance hormones. also called catecholamines. .

. •But Selye also observed that this emotional state. including fighting.What Is Stress ? •They reflect an intensified readiness to defend life. fleeing or other physical achievements. was responsible for the adverse effects of stress. resulting from the feeling of being threatened.

. These effects are psychosomatic disturbances which. can turn into organic illnesses. long-lasting or recurrent stress situations can be detrimental to health by inducing functional troubles.What Is Stress ?   In fact. in the long run. particularly in the gastro-intestinal or in the cardiovascular systems.

as follows : “an adaptive response. mediated by individual differences and/or psychological processes. situation. or event that places excessive psychological and/or physical demands upon a person”.Ivancevich and Matteson define stress simply as “ the interaction of the individual with the environment”. but then they go on to give a more detailed working definitions. that is a consequence of any external (environmental) action. .

Like anxiety. Unconscious people have exhibited stress. or to be avoided. Stress is not necessarily something damaging. but the two are not the same. nervous tension may result from stress.   Stress is not simply nervous tension. bad. and some people may keep it “bottled up” and not reveal it through nervous tension. Stress is not simply anxiety. Eustress is not damaging or bad and is something people should seek out rather than avoid. .

and residential or community conditions. the family relocation.The Causes of Stress  Extraorganizational stressors Extraorganizational stressors include things such as societal/technological change. race and class. economic and financial conditions. .

psychological effects. Several conditions associated with career development or job future (lack of job security. and poor physical health. 3. under promotion. .Extraorganizational Stressors 1. over promotion. These stressors include factors related to career and commuting. Extra-organizational stressors are factors that are related to work but extend beyond the specific job or organization. and fear of job obsolescence) have been related to adverse behavioral problems. 2.

Unrealistic job descriptions . Frequent relocation 5. arbitrary performance reviews 2. Pay inequities. Policies 1. Ambiguous procedures 4. inflexible rules 3. Unfair.Organizational Stressors a.

lack of participation in decision making. Interdependence of departments 6. High degree of specialization.Organizational Stressors b. 3. 5. 2. 4. A great amount of formalization. Centralization. Line staff conflicts . Little opportunity for advancement. Structures 1.

Safety hazards 6.Organizational Stressors c. Air pollution 5. Excessive noise. Inadequate lighting . Physical conditions 1. Presence of toxic chemicals or radiation 4. Crowding and lack of privacy 2. heat or cold 3.

Processes 1. Poor communication 4. Poor/inadequate feedback about performance 2.Organizational Stressors d. Unfair control system 6. Inadequate information . Ambiguous /conflicting goals 3. Inaccurate/ambiguous measurement of performance 5.

Intraindividual. and intergroup conflict .Group Stressors 1. Lack of social support 3. Lack of group cohesiveness 2. interpersonal.

efficacy Psychological hardiness may all affect the level of stress someone experiences. .Individual Stressors        Role conflict Ambiguity Individual dispositions (such as type A personality pattern) Personal control Learned helplessness Self .

work orientation. and these often make conflicting demands and create conflicting expectations. community and so on). club. children. recreational. work professional. • After a recent extensive search of the empirical research it was concluded that “work schedule. . and spouse employment pattern may all produce pressures to participate extensively in the work role of the family role”. marriage.Role Conflict and Ambiguity • Individual employees have multiple roles (family.

Role ambiguity results from inadequate information or knowledge to do a job. This ambiguity may be due to inadequate training.Role Conflict and Ambiguity   Stress results when the time demands for the work role are incompatible with the time pressures of the family role or vice versa. poor communication. or the deliberate withholding or distortion of information by a coworker of supervisor. .

            Profiles of Type A Personality Is always moving Walks rapidly Eats rapidly Talks rapidly Is impatient Does two things at once Can’t cope with leisure time Is obsessed with numbers Measure success by quantity Is aggressive Is competitive Constantly feels under time pressure .

not to win Relaxes without guilt Has no pressing deadlines Is mild-mannered Is never in a hurry .Profiles of Type B Personality         Is not concerned about time Is patient Does not brag (membual) Plays for fun.

They are the ones who : 1. or rank-andfile operating employees) experience considerable stress. hard hours under constant deadline pressures and conditions for overload. staff.Type A Personality Type A employees (managers. 2. Often take work home at night or on weekends and are enable to relax. sales persons. specialists. secretaries. . Work long.

. Constantly compete with themselves. setting high standards of productivity that they seem driven to maintain. to be irritated with the work efforts of others. and to be misunderstood by superiors.Type A Personality 3. 4. Tend to become frustrated by the work situations.

pace work. Physical conditions --unpleasant. Stressors Job structure --. Job content ---. lack of control. shift work. .Components Of The Stress Process 1. machinepacing.overtime.Quantitative overload. qualitative underload.

community. commuting. career development.Components Of The Stress Process Stressors (continued)  Organization ---. family.Job insecurity. . role conflict.  Extra-organizational ---.  Other sources ---.role ambiguity. competition and rivalry.personal.

hypertension. dissatisfaction. ulcers. mass psychogenic illness. heart disease. Long-term ---.anxiety. mental . Long-term ----. blood pressure increases.catecholamines. asthma. cortisol. burnout. • Psychologic (cognitive and affective) Short-term ---.OUTCOMES • Physiologic : Short-term ---.depression.

OUTCOMES  Behavioral : Short-term --. reduced productivity and participation). community (decreased friendships and participation).job (absenteeism. .“learned helplessness”. personal (excessive use of alcohol and drugs. smoking) Long-term --.

OUTCOMES Individual --.emotional. Social support --. value or self esteem. and informational.behavioral style and personal resources. .

 Those able to successfully cope with extreme stressors seem to have “hardiness” disposition. .Psychological Hardiness  Some people seem to go to pieces at the slightest provocation while others seem unflappable (tidak terganggu) in the face of extremely stressful situations.

Psychological Hardiness  Kobasa and her colleagues studied executives under considerable stress who were both hardy and nonhardy. . and control (they felt that they could influence the events around them).  She found that the hardy executives had a lower rate of stress-related illness and were characterized with as having commitment (they become very involved in what they were doing). challenge (they believed that change rather than stability was normal).

. it is generally recognized that at least low levels of stress can even enhance job performance.The Effects of Job Stress  Stress is not automatically bad for individual employee or their organizational performance.  In fact.

may result in an increased search of information in the job. . one recent study found that mild stress.  This may lead employees to new and better ways of doing their jobs. such as getting a new supervisor or being involuntarily transferred.The Effects of Job Stress  For example.

personal control and learned helplessness. may affect the relationship between stress and performance.The Effects of Job Stress  Research is also emerging that indicates that the level of difficulty and nature of the task being performed and personal dispositions such as type A. . self efficacy and psychological hardiness.

However. Performance usually drops off sharply when stress rises to high levels. it is still safe to conclude that : 1. The performance of many tasks is in fact strongly affected by stress.The Effects of Job Stress Continued ………. 2. .

. self efficacy and psychological hardiness. may affect the relationship between stress and performance. personal control and learned helplessness.Behavioral Problems  Research is also emerging that indicates that the level of difficulty and nature of the task being performed and personal dispositions such as type A.

Job control. 2. Social support. is the worker’s participation in determining the job routine. including control over temporal aspects and supervising work processes. A lack of social support increases the load of stressors.Stressors In The Work Environment The following conditions may become stressors in work environments : 1. . means assistance through supervisors and peers (teman sebaya).

including demands upon attention. . 4. Responsibility for the lives and the well being of other people may be a heavy mental burden.Stressors In The Work Environment 3. Deadlines may be a major stressor. It is the perceived stress in job and career. Task and performance demands are characterized by the workload. Job security --. too. Job distress or dissatisfaction is mainly related to job content and work load. refers mainly to the threat of unemployment. 6.

Complexity is defined as the number of different demands involved in a job. Repetitive and monotonous work is often characterized by a lack of complexity. 8. enclosed offices. poor lighting. Physical environmental problems include noise. On the other hand. two high complexity can arouse feelings of incompetence and lead to emotional strain. indoor climate or small. .Stressors In The Work Environment 7. which seems to be an important predictor of job dissatisfaction.

Others get muscle pain and related back problems. . • Many people experience tension headaches due to stress. These physiological ailments are attributed to muscle contractions that occur when people are exposed to stressors.Physiological Consequences • Studies have found that medical students who are anxious about their exams are more susceptible to colds and other illnesses.

• .Physiological Consequences Cardiovascular disease represents one of the most disturbing effects of stress in modern society. • Stroke and heart attacks were rare a century ago but are now the leading causes of death among American adults.

Physiological Consequences • Stress also influences hypertension. . Hypertension has decreased in recent years as a result of better lifestyles and medical treatment. nearly one-quarter of all American adults are treated for this condition. Still.

their blood pressure goes up and down. .Physiological Consequences • Medical researchers believe that the long-term effects of stress on the heart goes something like this : whenever people are stressed. • That frequent pressure change causes injury to the blood vessel walls. which eventually makes them constrict and function abnormally.

this sequence leads to heart disease. researchers have found that people think they are in a low-stress state when. Unfortunately. For example. we often can not tell when we are physiologically stressed.Physiological Consequences • Over time. in fact. their palms are sweating and their blood pressure has risen. .

Physiological Consequences Stress produces various psychological consequences. . Emotional fatigue is another psychological consequence of stress and is related to job burnout. moodiness (murung) and depression. including job dissatisfaction.