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CHAPTER 2

BLOOD CIRCULATION AND


TRANSPORT

2.1 The Transport System in


Human Being
Internal

transport system is needed to deliver


useful materials to body cells and remove waste
materials
Internal transport system Circulatory system
Human circulatory system Double circulatory
system

Blood must flow through heart twice


Pulmonary circulation
Transport

blood between heart and lungs

Systematic circulation
Transport

of body

blood between the heart and all other parts

Characteristics of circulatory
system

Circulating fluid

Blood
Transports useful and waste materials

Pumping

Heart
Move through body by muscular contractions of heart

Blood

device

vessels

3 main types of blood vessels: arteries, veins and capillaries

Valves

Present in some blood vessels


Prevent backflow
Ensure blood flows in 1 direction only

Structure of human heart


From head
and body

To head
and body

To lungs
From lungs

Bicuspid valve /
mitral valve

Septum

From trunk
and legs

Blood Vessels and Their


Functions
3

types of blood vessels:


Arteries
Veins
Capillaries

Human

circulatory system is called a


closed system

Comparison
s
Characteristi Artery
cs

Vein

Capillary

Cross section

Size of lumen

Small

Big

Small

Thickness of
wall

Thick,
muscular and
elastic walls

thinner,
muscular and
less elastic

Wall only one


cell thick

Valves

Absent

Present

Absent

Blood flow

Fast and under


very high
pressure

Slow and
under low
pressure

Slow and
under high
pressure

Characteristi
cs

Artery

Vein

Capillary

Colour of
blood inside

Bright red,
contains
oxygenated
blood (except
pulmonary
artery)

Dark red,
contains
deoxygenated
blood

Bright red,
contains
oxygenated
blood

Function

Carries blood
away from
heart

Carries blood
to heart

Connects
arteries and
veins
Allows
exchange of
substances
between
blood and
body cells

Path of Blood
Flow

Aorta
Pulmonary
artery

Pulmonary
vein

Vena cava

Maintaining a healthy heart


Factors

that increase risk of getting


heart disease:

Heredity
Cholesterol and obesity
Lack of exercise
Smoking
Stress
Alcohol

Human
Blood
Blood

Plasma

Blood Cells

Red Blood
Cells

Blood Fragments

White Blood
Cells

Platelets

Plasma makes up 55% of blood by volume


The other 45% consists of red blood cells, white
blood cells and platelets

Plasma
Yellow

liquid in blood
90% of plasma is water
10% of plasma include:

Nutrients: glucose, amino acids and


vitamins
Proteins: antibodies, hormones, enzymes,
albumins and fibrinogen
Inorganic ions: sodium, calcium, chlorides
and phosphates

Main

functions of plasma:

To transport nutrients to tissues


To remove waste products from tissues
To distribute hormones, enzymes,
antibodies and other proteins
To distribute heat energy from liver and
muscles to all other parts of body

Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes)


Biconcave,

nucleus

disc shaped cells without

Transport

oxygen from the lungs to all


parts of body
Contain a red pigment called
haemoglobin which combines with
oxygen molecules to form
oxyhaemoglobin
Carry carbon dioxide from body cells to
lungs
RBC are produced in bone marrow
Lifespan: 120 days
When RBC are worn out, they are
destroyed in liver and spleen

White Blood Cells (leucocytes)


WBC

are much larger than RBC and they


each have a nucleus
Usually irregular in shape, colourless
and do not contain haemoglobin

Produced

from bone marrow cells


Lifespan of WBC depends on type of
WBC. It varies from a few hours to a few
months
Play a vital role in bodys defense
against diseases

Produce antibodies

WBC

can squeeze through walls of blood


capillaries into the space among the
cells to destroy the bacteria

Platelets (thrombocytes)
Play

an important role in blood clotting

Blood groups
ABO

system classifies the human


blood into 4 groups called A, B, AB and
O.
During blood transfusion, donors blood
must be compatible with the recipients
blood
When an incompatible type of blood is
transfused, RBC of donated blood will
agglutinate and cause fatal blockages in
recipients blood vessels

Donors blood

Recipients
blood

O
O
A
B
AB
Compatible

Incompatible

AB

Blood

group O can safely donate


blood, in small quantities, to anyone.
People with group O are called
universal donors
Blood group AB can safely receive
blood from anyone. Group AB people are
called universal recipients

Transport system in
Plants
Wilting

Non

woody plants depend on the water


stored in the cells of the stem for
support
Wilting occurs in non woody plants when
water loss through aerial parts of plant
exceeds water absorption by roots
Cells in plants lose their turgidity
(stiffness) and the plant droops

Transport Tissues in
Plants
Transport

system in plants is made up of

Xylem tissues
Phloem tissues

They

are found in roots, stems and


leaves

Cross section of root

Cross section of stem

Cross section of leaf


Upper
epidermis

Lower
epidermis

Xylem tissues
Made

up of xylem vessels

Form woody tissues of plants and give


support
Transport water and dissolved minerals
from roots, up the stems and to the
leaves

Phloem
tissues
Transport

food substances from leaves


to the stems and roots
Xylem and phloem tissues form vascular
bundles