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Ammonia

Characteristics

Anhydrous = without water


Pungent, colourless gas
Stored as liquid under pressure (or refrigerated)
DOT: Non-flammable compressed gas (limited
flammability range
Pressure varies greatly with temperature 50 F = 75
psig 90 F = 165 psig
Ammonia is sensitive to pressure and temperature
A small volume of liquid anhydrous ammonia will
produce a large volume of gas at atmospheric
pressure.

Ammonia Health
hazards

Irritant to mucous membranes


Corrosive effects from high levels
Coughing and bronchial spasms
Rapidly fatal when concentrations are
5,000 to 10,000 ppm
Immediately fatal when concentration is
greater than 10,000ppm.
Edema, strangulation, asphyxia

Critical skin damage begins at 24.8F and


becomes irreversible at -18.5F.
The degree of tissue injury is proportional
to the duration and concentration of
exposure.
Alkaline burns go deeper than acid burns.
Alkali burns are yellow, soapy, and soft in
texture. When burns are severe, skin turns
black and leathery.

Ammonia Loves Water .


This is BAD because :
NH3 attacks the moist areas of the
body
The body is mostly water
The eye is 90% water
Exposure can result in immediate
eye damage

What NOT to wear Never wear


contact lenses when working
near ammonia! Ammonia may
become trapped behind the
contact lens, increasing the risk
of damage to the eye and
reducing the effectiveness of
the eyewash.

Recognizing Ammonia
The most recognizable property of ammonia is: Smell
Ammonias strong, pungent and irritating smell
gives early and positive warning that ammonia is pre
Rule of Exposure
5 ppm - You can smell it.
50 ppm - It can harm you Long Term Exposure
300 ppm IDLH Immediate Danger to Life & Health
5,000 ppm - It can kill you BASIC RULE: If you can
smell ammonia be concerned, move out of the
ammonia cloud as soon as possible and immediately
notify others.

Recognizing Ammonia
Ammonia

Vapor Lighter than


air May be colourless as below
May have a visible cloud as
below

Health hazards

Chemical burn from


vaporization of liquid ammonia

Workers with chronic


respiratory problems/sensitivity
should avoid ammonia exposure

Emergency procedures

Ammonia leaks detected by


odor

Know emergecny procedures in


event of a leak

Emergency procedures

Ammonia is lighter than air

Stay low to the ground, and move


upwind

Emergency procedures

Wear an emergency escape


respirator, if available

Action for an Ammonia


Release
If you smell ammonia, see it, or hear an
alarm, immediately do the following:
Follow your emergency plan.
Evacuate the affected area
Notify everyone in the affected and
surrounding areas
Assemble in assembly area

Action for an Ammonia


Release

Carbon Monoxide
The
Silent Killer!

Carbon Monoxide

Odorless, colorless, tasteless, nonirritating gas


Virtually undetectable without
specialized equipment gas detectors

CO
A silent killer: CO will kill
before its presence is known
No early warning signs
Displaces O2 in the bloodstream
Victims die from
asphyxiation

How Does Carbon


Monoxide Poisoning Work?
Enters the body through the lungs and is delivered
to the blood

Red blood cells pick up CO instead of oxygen


Hemoglobin likes CO 250 times more than oxygen

CO prevents the oxygen that is present from being readily


released to and used properly by tissues

Source: Olson: Poisoning and Drug


Overdose

Why Do We Need
Oxygen?

Brain damage

Can only live a few


minutes without
oxygen.

Organ damage

Vital organs such as


brain and heart
need oxygen

Possibly death
Source: Vermont Department of Health

Because Carbon Monoxide is


COLORLESS, ODORLESS, and
TASTELESS it is virtually impossible
for humans to be aware of its
presence. The most effective, and
often only way to know if CO is
present is to obtain a detector.

Dont take chances. Play it safe.


Carbon Monoxide poisoning has
tragically caused hundreds of
deaths, as a CO Producing plant,
its absolutely vital to obtain a
detector and educate yourself
and your collogues ones about
this...

Hydrogen Hazards

What Is Hydrogen? Hydrogen is


a colourless, odourless,
tasteless, flammable nontoxic
gas. It is the lightest of all
gases, with a specific gravity of
0.0695. The hydrogen content of
atmospheric air at sea level is
0.5 ppm.

Hydrogen Hazards
Several unique properties contribute to the hazards
associated with gaseous and liquid hydrogen systems:
Hydrogen is flammable over a wide range of
concentrations.
The ignition energy for hydrogen is very low.
A single volume of liquid hydrogen expands to about
850 volumes of gas at standard temperature and
pressure when vaporized.

Flammability

Hydrogen burns with a nearly invisible bluish flame,


unless it is contaminated with impurities, in which
case a pale-yellow flame is easily visible in the
dark.
The temperature of burning hydrogen in air is high
(3,713 F, as compared with 2,276o F for gasoline),
and warm hydrogen gas rises rapidly because of its
buoyancy.
Hydrogen forms a flammable mixture over a wide
range of concentrations in air and requires a
minimum ignition source, only one-tenth of the
energy required for gasoline vapours.

Types of Emergencies.

The principal danger from a leak is the potential


burns and fires.
Leaks can occur near the a valve /regulator/ tubing/
tubing bends or joints or a pumping system.
Catastrophic fires can occur.
High-pressure gas leaks can occur.
Controllable leaks are relatively small leaks that
would not result in significant release before shutoff and relief valves can be made operational.
Uncontrollable leaks may be large and involve
major release. Large fire and explosions may occur.

Handling Gas Leaks

When a leak occurs, the area shall be completely roped off


and caution signs shall be posted
Only an acceptable, approved solution shall be used when
testing for leaks.
The supply source shall be shut-off immediately if possible
If a cylinder safety device leaks, personnel shall not
attempt to correct the leak by tightening the safety device
cap while the cylinder is under pressure. The contents of
the cylinder shall be emptied in a safe location. The cap
shall be removed to examine the condition of the threads,
correct the damage, pressurize and leak test.
Leaking commercial cylinders should be safely vented,
tagged as defective, and returned.