WATER RESOURCES OF PAKISTAN-PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT

PRESENTATION BY DR MOHAMMAD SAID &

CURRENT DEBATE ON WATER RESOURCES HAS TWO DIMENSIONS:
• POLITICAL • TECHNICAL

IMPORTANCE OF IRRIGATION
• Pakistan is a semi-arid country
• 80% of the area receives Annual Rainfall less than 30″

•Agriculture without irrigation is not possible. • Irrigation is carried out by the following means:
– Canals Inundation Canals Perennial Canals – Wells Dug-out wells Tubewells – Springs Artisan Torrents

SOURCES OF WATER (Q) IN OUR RIVERS:
RAINFALL – SNOW MELTING – GLACIERS – SPRINGS

LAND USE IN PAKISTAN

WATER AVAILIBILITY IN PAKISTAN

BACKGROUND

EXISTING SURFACE STORAGES
PROJECT   RIVER HT. OF DAM FT M LIVE STORAGE MAF BCM POWER (MW)   3478  1000  -  240  4  4722 1 MAF = 1.224 BCM PURPOSE  

TARBELA (1976) MANGLA (1966) CHASHMA (1971) WARSAK (1960)  BARAN DAM (1962) HUB (1983)  KHANPUR (1984) TANDA (1965) RAWAL (1962) SIMLY DAM (1972) BKD KHAN (1900 ) HAMAL LAKE MANCHAR LAKE KINJHAR LAKE CHOTIARI LAKE   I - IRRIGATION  

INDUS  JHELUM INDUS KABUL  KURRAM   HUB HARO KOHAT TOI KURANG  SOAN  PISHIN INDUS INDUS INDUS

485 380  -  250  107 151  167  115  114  215  35  -  -  -  - 

147.8  115.8  -  76.2  32.6 46.0 50.9 35.0 34.7 65.5 10.7 -

 9.30 4.82  0.61  0.04  0.03 0.76  0.09  0.06  0.04  0.02  0.04  0.08  0.75  0.32  0.78  17.74

11.38  5.90  0.75  0.05  0.04 0.93  0.11  0.07  0.05  0.02  0.05  0.09  0.92  0.39  0.95  21.90

I,P I,P I,P I,P I,P  I,W I,W  I  W  W  I  I  I  I,W  I   

TOTAL P- POWER

W- WATER SUPPLY

RESERVOIR SEDIMENTATION (MAF)

SURFACE STORAGE SITES – INDUS RIVER & TRIBUTATIES
PROJECT   RIVER HT. OF DAM LIVE STORAGE POWER (MW)   FT M MAF BCM PURPOSE STATUS

YUGO SKARDU KATZARA BASHA KALABAG H KALAM MIR KHANI KHAZANA MUNDA  

SYHOK INDUS INDUS INDUS INDUS SWAT CHITRAL PANJKORA SWAT  

540 755 660 260 450 410 380 700

164.5 230.1

4.82 15.52 35.00

5.90 18.99 42.82 6.98 7.46 0.32 0.71 0.68 0.82

1000 4000 15000 3360 3600 110 150 110 740

I,P I,P

R R R

201.1 79.3 137.1 124.9 115.8 213.2

5.70 6.10 0.26 0.58 0.56 0.67

I,P I,P I,P I,P I,P  I,P  

PF C R R R  F  

I.IRRIGATION P-POWER

R- RECONNAISSANCE STUDY COMPLETED F- FEASIBILITY STUDY COMPLETED

FT. FEET M: METERS

LOCATION OF DAM SITES

KALABAGH DAM
SALIENT FEATURES
• • • • • • • • GROSS STORAGE 7.9 MAF LIVE STORAGE 6.1 MAF RETENTION LEVEL915 FT. CREST ELEVATION 940 FT. MAX HEIGHT 260 FT. HYDRO POWER 2,400/ 3,600 MW NO. OF UNITS8/12 ESTIMATED COST US $ 6.1 BILLION

PROBLEMS
• SHORT LIFE DUE TO HEAVY SEDIMENTATION • POWER HOUSES CLOSURE FOR 3 MONTHS • DISPLACEMENT OF POPULATION (1,20,000)
– PUNJAB 78,000 – NWFP 42,000

• SUBMERGENCE OF FERTILE LAND (27,500 ACRES) PUNJAB: TOTAL 24,500
– BARANI 21,000 – IRRIGATED 2,900

NWFP: TOTAL 3,000
– BARANI 2,900 – IRRIGATED 100

• DRAINAGE PROBLEMS OF PESHAWAR VALLEY • FLOODS IN KABUL RIVER • EFFECTS ON INDUS DELTA MANGROVE FORESTS. • ADVERSE EFFECTS ON RIVERINE AREA

DRAINAGE LEVEL IN KABUL VALLEY WITH KALABAGH

BASHA DAM
– – – – – – – GROSS STORAGE LIVE STORAGE HYDRO POWER HEIGHT OF DAM TOTAL COST ELEVATION RESERVOIR ASL AREA UNDER RESERVOIR 9.04 MAF 7.30 MAF 4,500 MW 913 FT. $ 6.5 BILLION 3819 FT. 32,000 ACRES

PROBLEMS
• DISPLACEMENT OF POPULATION 24,350 PERSONS IN 32 VILLAGES • SUBMERGENCE OF KKH 110 KM • LOSS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND 1,600 ACRES • COST OF RESETTLEMENT $ 200 M

KATZARAH DAM
SALIENT FEATURES
• • • • • • GROSS STORAGE LIVE STORAGE HYDRO POWER HEIGHT COST PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDIES 35 MAF ? 15000 MW 860 FT. NOT WORKED-OUT IN PROGRESS

PROBLEMS

• • • • •

SUBMERGENCE OF LAND 80,000 ACRES ROADS AFFECTED 40 KM DISPLACED POPULATION 1,60,000 PERSONS SKARDU AIRPORT WOULD BE SUBMERGED POWER DISPERSAL VERY DIFFICULT

AKHORI RESERVOIR
SALIENT FEATURES
• • • • GROSS STORAGE LIVE STORAGE HEIGHT COST 14 MAF 6 MAF 418 FT. $ 5 BILLION

PROBLEMS
• PERSONS DISPLACED • ROADS AFFECTED • LAND SUBMERGENCE 49,300 97 KM 59,200 ACRES

PROVINCIAL VIEWS ON MEGA DAMS

CONCLUSION
• Water resources must be developed on priority basis • Feasibility study should be carried out of all potential sites • The retention level of Kalabagh dam (915 ft) should be further reduced to protect Peshawar valley from water-logging • Work on Basha dam, which is not controvercial, should be taken-up followed by Akhori and Katzarah

Thanks for the attention and interest

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