Rajasthan College of Engineering for Women

TOPIC :- SUBMARINE

COMMUNICATION CABLE
SUBMITTED TO:Mrs.AMITA YADAV

SUBMITTED BY:GEETANJALI MEENA 3rd year E&C Section B 08ERCEW205

A submarine communications cable is a cable laid beneath the sea to carry telecommunications between countries. The first submarine communications cables carried telegraphy traffic. All modern cables use optical fiber technology to carry digital payloads, which are then used to carry telephone traffic as well as Internet and private data traffic. they are typically 69 millimeters (2.7 in) in diameter and weigh around 10 kilograms per meter, although thinner and lighter cables are used for deep-water sections.

Modern submarine cables rely on property of pure glass fibers, whereby light is transmitted by internal reflection. Because the light signal losses strength in the route, repeaters are installed along the cable to boost the signal. In 1956 :-first TAT initial had capacity of 36 telephone calls at a time ,calls costing US$12 for first 3 minutes. Today each fiber pair within a cable has the capacity to carry digitized information (including video)that is equivalent to 150,000,000 simultaneous phone calls

Transatlantic cables of the 19th century consisted of an outer layer of iron and later steel wire, wrapping India rubber, wrapping gutta-percha, which surrounded a multistranded copper wire at the core. In the 1980s, fiber optic cables were developed. The first transatlantic telephone cable to use optical fiber was TAT-8, which went into operation in 1988. The optic fiber used in undersea cables is chosen for its exceptional clarity, permitting runs of more than 100 kilometers between repeaters to minimize the number of amplifiers and the distortion they cause.

A cross section of a submarine communications cable. 1 -polyethylene 2 - Mylar tape 3 - Stranded steel wires 4 Aluminum water barrier 5 - Polycarbonate 6 - Copper or aluminum tube 7 - Petroleum jelly 8 - Optical fibers

High reliability , capacity & security. None of the delays present s in satellite traffic. Cost effective on major routes, hence rate cheaper then satellites.

Suitable for disaster prone areas. Provides wide coverage for mobile subscribers. Suitable for linking isolated regions and small island nations into the international network.

Submarine cables carry >95% of international voice &data traffic

Satellites carry < 5% of international voice and data traffic

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