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Aula 1

Sandro R.
Lautenschlager

Mecnica dos Fluidos

1-Consideraes
Bsicas

Mecnica dos Fluidos


Definio
Estudo dos lquidos e gases no qual no h
movimento (estticos) e naqueles no qual h
movimentos (dinmica)

History
Faces of Fluid Mechanics

Archimedes
(C. 287-212
BC)

Navier
(1785-1836)

Newton

Leibniz

Bernoulli

Euler

(1642-1727)

(1646-1716)

(1667-1748)

(17071783)

Prandtl

Taylor

Stokes
(1819-1903)

Reynolds
(1842-1912)

(1875-1953)

(1886-1975)

Weather & Climate


Tornadoes

Thunderstorm

Global Climate

Hurricanes

Vehicles
Aircraft

High-speed rail

Surface ships

Submarine
s

Environment
Air pollution

River hydraulics

Physiology and Medicine


Blood pump

Ventricular assist device

Sports & Recreation


Water sports

Auto
racing

Cycling

Offshore racing

Surfing

Aplicao em engenharia

Computer Simulations Save US


$150,000 in Commuter Jet Design by
Reducing Wind Tunnel Testing

Aplicao em engenharia

Aplicao em engenharia

Aplicao em engenharia

Propriedades dos Fluidos

Peso especfico

Onde:
g-gravidade local (9,8 m/s2);
-massa especifica (kg/m3);
-peso especfico (kg/m2s2) ou N/m3

Propriedades dos Fluidos


Densidade

gua

gua

Temperatura de referncia 40C

Variao de e com a
temperatura
H 2O

T 4
1000

H 2O

180

T 4
9800
18

Massa Especfica

H 2O

T 4
1000

180

H 2 O (0 0 C ) H 2 O ( 4 0 C )

Peso Especfico
H 2O

T 4
9800

18

Nas condies Normais

Massa
Especifica
(kg/m3)

Peso
Especifico
(N/m3)

Densidade

Ar

1,23

12,1

0,00123

gua

1000

9810

Some Simple Flows


Flow between a fixed and a moving
plate
Fluid in contact with the plate has the same
velocity as the plate
u = x-direction component of velocity

Moving plate

u=V

V
B

u( y)

V
y
B

Fluid

Fixed plate

x
u=0

Some Simple Flows


Flow through a long, straight pipe
Fluid in contact with the pipe wall has the
same velocity as the wall
u = x-direction component of velocity
R

r
x

2
r
u (r ) V 1
R

Fluid

Fluid Deformation
Flow between a fixed and a moving
plate
Force causes plate to move with
velocity V and the fluid deforms
continuously.
y
Moving plate
t0

u=V

t1 t2
Fluid
Fixed plate

x
u=0

Fluid Deformation
Shear stress on the plate is proportional
to deformation rate of the fluid

L
y

L
t
V

L
t

t y

t
V
y

Moving plate

u=V+V

t+t

Fluid
Fixed plate

x
u=V

Shear in Different Fluids


Shear-stress relations for
different types
of fluids
Newtonian fluids: linear
relationship
Slope of line (coefficient of
proportionality) is viscosity
dV
dy
dV

dy

Viscosity

Newtons Law of Viscosity

Viscosity

Units

Water (@ 20oC)

dV / dy

N / m2 N s

m / s / m m2
V+dv

= 1x10-3 N-s/m2

Air (@ 20oC)

dV
dy

= 1.8x10-5 N-s/m2

Kinematic viscosity

Flow between 2 plates


Force is same on top
and bottom
F1 1 A1 2 A2 F2
A1 A2

1 2

du
du

2
dy 1
dy 2

Thus, slope of velocity


profile is constant and
velocity profile is a st. line

Moving plate

u=V

V
B

u( y)

V
y
B

Fluid

Fixed plate

Force acting
ON the plate
x
u=0

Flow between 2 plates


Shear stress anywhere
between plates

du
V

dy
B

0.1 N s / m 2 ( SAE 30 @ 38o C ) (0.1 N s / m 2 )( 3 m / s )


0.02 m
V 3 m/s
15 N / m 2
B 0.02 m

Moving plate
V
B

u( y)

V
y
B

u=V

Fixed plate

Shear
on fluid
x
u=0

Flow between 2 plates


2 different coordinate systems

r
x
y

2
r
u (r ) V 1
B

V
x

u( y) C y B y

Example: Journal Bearing


Given

Rotation rate, = 1500 rpm


d = 6 cm
l = 40 cm
D = 6.02 cm
SGoil = 0.88

oil = 0.003 m2/s

Find: Torque and Power


required to turn the bearing
at the indicated speed.

Example: cont.
Assume: Linear velocity profile in oil film
Shear Stress

dV
( d / 2)

dy
(D d ) / 2

*
1500

(0.06 / 2)
60

(0.88 *1000 * 0.003)


124 kN / m 2
(0.0002) / 2
Torque M (2

d d
l)
2 2

(2 *124,000 *

0.06
0.06
* 0.4)
281 N m
2
2

Power P M 281*157.1 44,100 N m / s 44.1 kW

Compressibilidade
Mdulo de elasticidade volumtrica

p
B lim

V 0
V / V

p
V
V

p
lim
0 /

Mdulo de elasticidade para gua


B=2100MPa ou
21000x atm

Mudana 1%

H 2O

21Mpa (210atm)

Lquidos podem
ser considerados
incompressveis

Clculo velocidade do som

p
c

Exemplo para gua c = 1450m/s (condies normais )

Data da Provas
P1 17/08/11 Cap. 1 e 2;
P2 05/10/11 Cap. 3 e 4;
P3 21/11/11 Cap 4 e 6.
Exame 5/12/11

NP1 NP2 NP3


Mdia
3
Mdia 6,0 Aprovao direta
Mdia 6,0 Dever realizar avaliao final
Avaliao final Cap. 1, 2, 3, 4 e 6