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Sandro R.

Lautenschlager

1-Consideraes

Bsicas

Definio

Estudo dos lquidos e gases no qual no h

movimento (estticos) e naqueles no qual h

movimentos (dinmica)

History

Faces of Fluid Mechanics

Archimedes

(C. 287-212

BC)

Navier

(1785-1836)

Newton

Leibniz

Bernoulli

Euler

(1642-1727)

(1646-1716)

(1667-1748)

(17071783)

Prandtl

Taylor

Stokes

(1819-1903)

Reynolds

(1842-1912)

(1875-1953)

(1886-1975)

Tornadoes

Thunderstorm

Global Climate

Hurricanes

Vehicles

Aircraft

High-speed rail

Surface ships

Submarine

s

Environment

Air pollution

River hydraulics

Blood pump

Water sports

Auto

racing

Cycling

Offshore racing

Surfing

Aplicao em engenharia

$150,000 in Commuter Jet Design by

Reducing Wind Tunnel Testing

Aplicao em engenharia

Aplicao em engenharia

Aplicao em engenharia

Peso especfico

Onde:

g-gravidade local (9,8 m/s2);

-massa especifica (kg/m3);

-peso especfico (kg/m2s2) ou N/m3

Densidade

gua

gua

Variao de e com a

temperatura

H 2O

T 4

1000

H 2O

180

T 4

9800

18

Massa Especfica

H 2O

T 4

1000

180

H 2 O (0 0 C ) H 2 O ( 4 0 C )

Peso Especfico

H 2O

T 4

9800

18

Massa

Especifica

(kg/m3)

Peso

Especifico

(N/m3)

Densidade

Ar

1,23

12,1

0,00123

gua

1000

9810

Flow between a fixed and a moving

plate

Fluid in contact with the plate has the same

velocity as the plate

u = x-direction component of velocity

Moving plate

u=V

V

B

u( y)

V

y

B

Fluid

Fixed plate

x

u=0

Flow through a long, straight pipe

Fluid in contact with the pipe wall has the

same velocity as the wall

u = x-direction component of velocity

R

r

x

2

r

u (r ) V 1

R

Fluid

Fluid Deformation

Flow between a fixed and a moving

plate

Force causes plate to move with

velocity V and the fluid deforms

continuously.

y

Moving plate

t0

u=V

t1 t2

Fluid

Fixed plate

x

u=0

Fluid Deformation

Shear stress on the plate is proportional

to deformation rate of the fluid

L

y

L

t

V

L

t

t y

t

V

y

Moving plate

u=V+V

t+t

Fluid

Fixed plate

x

u=V

Shear-stress relations for

different types

of fluids

Newtonian fluids: linear

relationship

Slope of line (coefficient of

proportionality) is viscosity

dV

dy

dV

dy

Viscosity

Viscosity

Units

Water (@ 20oC)

dV / dy

N / m2 N s

m / s / m m2

V+dv

= 1x10-3 N-s/m2

Air (@ 20oC)

dV

dy

= 1.8x10-5 N-s/m2

Kinematic viscosity

Force is same on top

and bottom

F1 1 A1 2 A2 F2

A1 A2

1 2

du

du

2

dy 1

dy 2

profile is constant and

velocity profile is a st. line

Moving plate

u=V

V

B

u( y)

V

y

B

Fluid

Fixed plate

Force acting

ON the plate

x

u=0

Shear stress anywhere

between plates

du

V

dy

B

0.02 m

V 3 m/s

15 N / m 2

B 0.02 m

Moving plate

V

B

u( y)

V

y

B

u=V

Fixed plate

Shear

on fluid

x

u=0

2 different coordinate systems

r

x

y

2

r

u (r ) V 1

B

V

x

u( y) C y B y

Given

d = 6 cm

l = 40 cm

D = 6.02 cm

SGoil = 0.88

required to turn the bearing

at the indicated speed.

Example: cont.

Assume: Linear velocity profile in oil film

Shear Stress

dV

( d / 2)

dy

(D d ) / 2

*

1500

(0.06 / 2)

60

124 kN / m 2

(0.0002) / 2

Torque M (2

d d

l)

2 2

(2 *124,000 *

0.06

0.06

* 0.4)

281 N m

2

2

Compressibilidade

Mdulo de elasticidade volumtrica

p

B lim

V 0

V / V

p

V

V

p

lim

0 /

B=2100MPa ou

21000x atm

Mudana 1%

H 2O

21Mpa (210atm)

Lquidos podem

ser considerados

incompressveis

p

c

Data da Provas

P1 17/08/11 Cap. 1 e 2;

P2 05/10/11 Cap. 3 e 4;

P3 21/11/11 Cap 4 e 6.

Exame 5/12/11

Mdia

3

Mdia 6,0 Aprovao direta

Mdia 6,0 Dever realizar avaliao final

Avaliao final Cap. 1, 2, 3, 4 e 6

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