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# CDM303

3D ANIMATION

CHAPTER 3

MODELLING TECHNIQUES

PREPARED BY:

## SARAIZA BT KHAIRUL IKRAM

SCHOOL OF MULTIMEDIA
FACULTY OF ART & DESIGN

Topic Outline

## 3.1 Geometric Primitives.

3.2 Free-Form Objects.
3.3 Basic Modeling Utilities.
3.4 Polygonal Models.
3.5 Subdivision Surfaces.
3.6 Photorealistic and Image-Based Modeling.

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## Virtually all 3-Dimensional modeling computer program provide a collection

of tools for creating a simple shapes with a fixed structure known as
geometric primitives. The number of geometric primitives is various from
program to program. Below is a list that representatives selections:

Cubes(Box)
Sphere (Ball)
Cylinders
Cones
Toruses (Toroid)

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## 3.1 Geometric Primitives

CUBES (BOX)
Cubes are usually modeled as six-sided,closed,3-dimensional objects.
Since all sides have the same length, usually the only variable required for
modeling cubes is the length of a sides. Sometimes a number of subdivision
can be specified along each of the three axes. Its almost always created as
polygonal structures.
SPHERE (BALL)
Spheres ,like cubes are also model as symmetric, closed, threedimensional object. In order to be defined , all spheres required a variable of
radius or diameter and they can be modeled as a polygonal structure or as
a patch of curves.

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## CYLINDER & CONES

Cylinders and cones are commonly defined as polygonal objects and they
may be shaped by the following variables, radius, height, number of
longitudinal divisions, latitudinal divisions and whether they are capped or
not. The number of subdivision used to build cylinders and cones defined
the amount of modeling detailed of this object.
TORUSES (TOROID)
A torus is 3-dimensional ,closed shaped that resembles a donut. Torus is
like cylinder that has been bent and stretch so that the 2 bases touch each
other

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## Some projects require the creation of free-from three-dimensional objects. It

is time consuming because the modeling techniques are similar to clay
sculpturing.
Medium resolution polygonal meshes which look smooth at a distance
mapped with detailed image map which are usually used in games .
High resolution polygonal meshes which are scanned from threedimensional Marquette usually involve large files and used in animated
feature films.
Free form modeling/deformation are used in specific scenes which is a
combination of other modeling tools that involves additional production time
and larger budget.

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## VIRTUAL SCULPTING WITH POLYGONAL MESHES

Starts with an existing three-dimensional structure that is to be sculpted and
transformed into desired free-form object. Direct point manipulation control of model
vertices in the wireframe structure can be displaced in three-dimensional space to
achieve the desired shape.

## DEFORMATION WITH LATICES

This technique is used especially in cases where a uniform global deformation is
desired or when the user does not have the skill or time to manipulate a large number
of points at a time. A latice is a structure of points and lines that controls the points in
the model.

## SIMPLE TERRAINS AND FUNCTIONS

Mathematical functions technique is used to develop simple terrains by distorting
those terrains. Another technique consists ;of building a three dimensional mesh
based on two dimensional contours that define an imaginary or real landscape.
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## Virtually all three-dimensional modeling programs offer a set of basic utilities

meant to complement the modeling process such as:

## Getting information and naming objects

Locking
Setting a face
Setting the center of objects
Duplicating and instancing
Setting text
Mirroring
Snapping to the grid
Volume calculation
Bounding box

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## 3.4 Polygonal Models.

The ability to render polygonal models in real time with today system which offer more
realistic rendering and more complex models especially in the gaming industries.
It is important to optimize polygonal models by minimizing their structural face counts
and texturing to optimize time render but producing appropriate quality for the viewer.
Most computer or platform games use their own custom rendering engine to render
polygonal models in real time.
Most online websites that use real time polygonal models require a player or plug-in
mainly for encoding moving images, but it also provide tools for encoding threedimensional polygonal meshes that can be used for low resolution real-time character
facial and body animation as well as visual lip configurations called visemes.
Methods thats been used to accelerate real time rendering are level of details,
billboards and flash animations.
Many 3D computer animation applications and some game engine have adopted
COLLADA [ Collaborative Design Activity ] as an asset exchange format which some
version are capable of storing material properties and physical attributes of 3d model.

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## 3.5 Subdivision Surfaces.

Subdivision surfaces are popular as a flexible solution for modeling surfaces which is
a cross between polygonal meshes and patch surfaces and they offer some of the
best attributes of each of these traditional modeling techniques.
Instead of having a constant density of points throughout the model, subdivision
surfaces allow for different resolutions on arbitrary sections on the surface
Subdivision surfaces are define algorithmically where each surfaces are split into four
facets and then reposition the vertices by doing local weight point averaging .
Subdivision surfaces will subdivide only where the topology of the surface requires
additional details which is called adaptive approximation.
Subdivision were first used in Geris Game and A Bugs Life.

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## Photogrammetry techniques allows us to reconstruct three-dimensional environments

by extracting spatial information from a series of photographs of an environment by
indicating the corners or main edges of the major shape on the scanned photographs
to become a 3d mold.
Photogrammetry software reconstructs a simple version of the geometry by analyzing
and comparing perspective lines and shading information between related
photographs of the same environment.
Laser scanning is another technique that can be effective in modeling large scale
three dimensional environments that uses a linear laser scanner to collect three
dimensional point data which is then converted into a polygonal mesh.

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LAB ACTIVITY

GOOD LUCK
AND

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ACTIVITY

LIGHTWAVE PART 3

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## NEXT SESSION PREVIEW

InInthe
thenext
nextclass
classwe
weare
aregoing
goingtotolearn
learn

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LIST OF REFERENCES

## 1. Dan Ablan, Inside Lightwave 9, New Riders, 2009

2. Arnold Gallardo, 3D Lighting, Charles River Media Inc, 2005.
3. Isaac Victor Kerlow, The Art of 3-D Computer Animation and
Imaging

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APPENDIX

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