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Introduction to

Radiography Industrial
application& Safety
Aspects

O utline
Electromagnetic
Radiation

General Principles
of Radiography

Sources of
Radiation

Gamma Radiography
X-ray Radiography

Imaging Modalities

Film Radiography
Computed Radiography
Real-Time Radiography

Radiation Safety
Advantages and
Limitations

Glossary of Terms

Introduction
Radiography

uses penetrating radiation


that is directed towards a component.

The

component stops some of the


radiation. The amount that is stopped
or absorbed is affected by material
density and thickness differences.

These

differences in absorption can


be recorded on film, or electronically.

G eneralPrinciples
of R adiography
The part is placed between the
radiation source and a piece of film.
The part will stop some of the
radiation. Thicker and more dense
area will stop more of the radiation.

X-ray film

The film darkness


(density) will vary with
the amount of radiation
reaching the film
through the test object.
= less exposure
= more exposure

Top view of developed film

G eneral P rinciples
of R adiography

The

energy of the radiation affects its


penetrating power. Higher energy radiation
can penetrate thicker and more dense
materials.
The radiation energy and/or exposure time
must be controlled to properly image the
region of interest.
Thin Walled Area

Low Energy Radiation

High energy Radiation

W hat is Radiation?
Form of energy (e.g.

Chemical, Magnetic,

Electrical, Heat, Sound, Radiation)

Radiation Energy: Emitted by nucleus of

atom or orbital electron


Released in form of electromagnetic

waves or particles

The Electrom agnetic Spectrum


W aveform of R adiation

NONIONIZING

IONIZING

Radio
Infrared
Microwaves

Ultraviolet

Visible light

Gamma rays
X-rays

D if e
frence betw een ionizing and nonionizing radiation
Energy levels:
Ionizing radiation has enough energy to break

apart (ionize) material with which it comes in


contact (knock off e-)
Non ionizing radiation does not

Sources ofRadiation Exposure


Naturally occurring sources ground, atmosphere,

cosmic
Environmental radiation power plants, nuclear

ships & submarine


Medical procedures (patient) x-ray, chemo-

therapy
Occupational sources (worker) - airports, metros,

industrial radiography

R adiation Sources
Two of the most commonly used sources
of radiation in industrial radiography are
x-ray generators and gamma ray sources.
Industrial radiography is often subdivided
into X-ray Radiography or Gamma
Radiography, depending on the source of
radiation used.

PROPERTY OF GAMMA RAYS

Electromagnetic rays like X-rays


Having a finite energy
Able to interact with matter
Killing a of cell by splitting DNA or

By forming free radicals

11

USES OF GAMMA RAYS FROM ISOTOPES


MEDICINE
AGRICULTURE
INDUSTRY
HELATH CARE
RESEARCH

12

LIST OF ISOTOPES
Isot
Half Production
Act.
op
life
Process
cross
secti
370
Ire192 74.4 Ir191 (n,)
192
on
Ir
barn
da
Co59 (n,)
37s
ys
Co 5.27
60
60
Co
barn
ye
s
130
Tm169
ars
Tm 127
170
170
(n,)Tm
barn
da
s
ys
Cs
30
Fission Fissio
137
n
ye
yield
ars
~6

Ene
rgy
0.29
6
M
to
1.17
eV
0.6
1.33
13
0.06
4,
0.0
0.66
52
13

X-R ay

Penetrating electromagnetic
cause internal damage

waves

can

Can pass through soft tissue, but not bone

Originate in outer part of atom

Used in medical procedures (diagnostic, CT,


Fluoroscopy- is an imaging technique that usesX-raysto obtain
real-time moving images of the internal structures of a patient through
the use of a fluoroscope)

Energy inversely proportional to wavelength


The shorter the wave, the stronger the energy
14

G am m a R adiography

Gamma

rays are produced by


a radioisotope.
A radioisotope has an
unstable nuclei that does not
have enough binding energy to
hold the nucleus together.
The spontaneous breakdown
of an atomic nucleus resulting
in the release of energy and
matter is known as radioactive
decay.

G am m a R adiography
(cont.)

Unlike
X-rays,
which
are
produced by a machine, gamma
rays cannot be turned off.
Radioisotopes used for gamma
radiography are encapsulated
to prevent leakage of the
material.

The radioactive capsule is


attached to a cable to form
what is often called a pigtail.
The pigtail has a special
connector at the other end
that attaches to a drive cable.

G am m a R adiography
(cont.)

A device called a camera is used to store,


transport and expose the pigtail containing
the radioactive material. The camera
contains shielding material which reduces
the radiographers exposure to radiation
during use.

G am m a R adiography
(cont.)
A hose-like device
called a guide
tube is connected
to a threaded hole
called an exit
port in the
camera.
The radioactive
material will leave
and return to the
camera through
this opening when
performing an

G am m a R adiography
(cont.
)
A drive cable is
connected to the other
end of the camera. This
cable, controlled by the
radiographer, is used to
force the radioactive
material out into the
guide tube where the
gamma rays will pass
through the specimen
and expose the recording
device.

X-ray R adiography
Unlike gamma rays, x-rays are produced by
an X-ray generator system. These systems
typically include an X-ray tube head, a high
voltage generator, and a control console .

X-ray R adiography (cont.)


X-rays are produced by establishing a very high voltage

between two electrodes, called the anode and cathode.


To prevent arcing, the anode and cathode are located
inside a vacuum tube, which is protected by a metal
housing.

X-ray R adiography (cont.)


The cathode contains a

small filament much the


same as in a light bulb.
Current is passed through
the filament which heats it.
The heat causes electrons
to be stripped off.
The high voltage causes
these free electrons to
be pulled toward a target
material (usually made of
tungsten) located in the
anode.
The electrons impact
against the target. This
impact causes an energy
exchange which causes x-

High Electrical Potential


Electrons
+

X-ray Generator
or Radioactive
Source Creates
Radiation

Radiation
Penetrate
the Sample
Exposure Recording Device

UNITS AND MEASUREMENT

A unit is necessary for the measurement

of any physical quantity.


The

International
Commission
on
Radiation Units and Measurements
(ICRU) reviews and updates
----Units of radiology

A few of the quantities and units that are

used in the field of ionizing radiation.

A ctivity (A )
It is defined as the number of nuclear

transformation (or disintegration) per second


for radioactive material.

Unit : Becquerel (Bq)

1 Bq = 1 transformation per second

= 1 dps
Old unit of activity is Curie (Ci)

1 Ci = 3.7 x 1010 transformation per

second

= 3.7 x 1010 Bq
= 37 x 109 Bq
= 37 GBq

Exposure (X)
It is a measure of amount of photons (x-

rays or gamma rays) present in a location


of interest. (Photon Flux).
Exposure is defined as the amount of
charge ( in coulomb) produced by radiation
in 1 kg of air.
SI Unit : Coulomb per kg (C/kg)
Old unit : Roentgen (R)
1 R = 1electrostatic unit of charge
(ESU)
1 cc of air at (STP)
= 2.58 x 10-4 C/kg

Absorbed dose (D)


It is the amount of

energy absorbed per


unit mass of matter at the point of interest.

D = E/m
D: absorbed dose
E: energy absorbed by material of

mass m
Dose

of 1 Gy corresponds to energy
absorption of 1 Joule per 1 kilogram of the
irradiated material.

K ER M A (K )
KERMA- Kinetic Energy Released in the

Medium.
It is a measure of amount of total energy
transferred by photons (x-rays or gamma
rays) interacting in the medium.
Kerma is defined as the sum of the initial
kinetic energies of all charged particles
liberated by radiation in material of mass
1 Kg.
Unit
: Joule per kg (J/kg)
SI Unit
: Gray (Gy)
When the reference material is air, the
quantity is called air kerma

U N ITS O F A B SO R B ED D O SE
The SI unit: Gray (Gy)
1 Gy = 1 joule/kilogram
Old unit : rad (Radiation Absorbed
Dose)
2

1 rad
Gy

= 100 ergs / gm = 10-

1 Gy=100 rad
(1 erg = 10-7 Joules)

O ld & N ew U nits
Quantity

Unit

Relationship

Old

New

Radioactivity

Ci

Bq

Exposure

C / Kg

Air Kerma

Gy

1 Air Kerma = 114 R

Dose

Rad

Gy

1 Gy = 100 Rad

Equivalent
Dose

Rem

Sv

1 Sv = 100 rems

1 Bq = 0.27 x 10-10 Ci
1 C Kg -1 = 3876 R

RT TECHNIQUES

31

RADIOGRAPHY
SOURCE

X-RAYS / GAMMA RAYS


WELD
IQI
JOB
FILM

SCREEN
CASSETTE HOLDER

32

RT - TECHNIQUES
1

SWSI

DWDI

CIRC. SEAM OF PIPES

CIRC. SEAM OF PIPES

2 DWSI
CIRC. SEAM OF PIPES
FILM

FILM

PANORAMIC

CIRC. SEAM OF PIPES

FILM

5 DIRECTIONAL
FILM

LONG SEAM
FILM

33

RADIOGRAPHY
RT - PLANNING

SHIELDING

CONTROL
UNIT

Operator

SHIELDING

CONDUIT

CAMERA

JOB

GUIDE
TUBE

FILM

WELD

TROLLEY

STAND
CORDONNED AREA

34

RADIOGRAPHY
GAMMA
GAMMA RAY
RAY SOURCES
SOURCES

IRIDIUM - 192

COBALT - 60

35

RADIOGRAPHY
GAMMA - SOURCE
Non
radioactive
IRIDIUM

191

ROOM TEMP. NEUTRONS


FROM REACTORS

PRODUCTION
Non
radioactive

radioactive

IRIDIUM Half life 75 days

192

PLATINUM

192

disposed

LOADED IN
RT CAMERA

GAMMA RAYS

36

RADIOGRAPHY
GAMMA - SOURCE
Non
radioactive

radioactive

COBALT

COBALT

59

ROOM TEMP. NEUTRONS


FROM REACTORS

PRODUCTION
Non
radioactive

Half life 5 years

NICKEL

60

60

LOADED IN
RT CAMERA

disposed

GAMMA RAYS

37

RADIOGRAPHY
CAMERA SET UP
URANIUM / LEAD
SHIELDING
BACK

SOURCE

FRONT

CAMERA

GAP

GUIDE
TUBE
TIP

CONTRO
L
UNIT

39

Contact - DWSV

Elliptical - DWDV

Single wall single view

ADVANTAGES OF RT

43

RADIOGRAPHY

1.

RT - FILM IS A PERMANENT RECORD


TESTING IN THE FORM OF HARD-REPORT.

OF

2. TWO-DIMENSIONAL- IMAGE OF DEFECT IS


MUCH EASIER AND CLEAR TO INTERPRET.
3. OPERATOR DEPENDENCE IS MINIMUM AS EACH
FILM IS QUALIFIED WITH PENETRA METER
4. EVALUATION OF WELD IS POSSIBLE AT A
DISTANT PLACE AWAY FORM JOB LOCATION

44

LIMITATIONS OF RT

45

RADIOGRAPHY

LIMITATIONS OF RT-METHOD
1. BOTH SURFACES OF THE JOB SHOULD
BE ACCESSIBLE TO OPERATORS.
0

2. JOB TEMPERATURE SHOULD NOT EXECEED 60 .


3. DEFECTS WHICH ARE PLANER IN NATURE
AND TO THE RADIATION MAY GET MISSED.
T

4. FILMS ARE VERY SENSITIVE TO


TEMPRATURE,
PRESSURE
HUMIDITY.
46

RADIOGRAPHY

2
LIMITATIONS OF RT-METHOD

5. WELD SURFACE INDICATIONS ARE CONFUSED WITH INDICATION


LIKE SLAGS, LACK OF FUSIONS
AND UNDERCUT CAUSING merge
and reshoot.
6. CERTIFIED AND LICENSED OPERATORS ARE REQUIRED.
7. RT ENCLOSURE IS NEEDED
8. EVACUATION OF CERTAIN AREA IS REQUIRED.

47

RADIATION SAFETY

48

RADIATION SAFETY

DISPLAY RED WARNING LIGHT AT ENTRY POINT.

1
SAFE PRACTICE

49

RADIATION SAFETY
DISPLAY RADIATION BOARD AT ENTRY POINT.

R AD I AT I O
N

2
SAFE PRACTICE
K E E P AWA
Y
50

RADIATION SAFETY

CORDON - OFF SAFE DISTANCE WITH FLAGGED ROPE FOR LOCATIONS OTHER THAN ENCLOSURE.

3
SAFE PRACTICE
51

RADIATION SAFETY
EVACUATE CORDONNED OFF AREA BEFORE
STARTING OF RADIOGRAPHY.

4
SAFE PRACTICE

NO
OCCUPANCY
ZONE

52

Perm issible exposure radiation doses

Workers

Skin
500 mSv

Eyes
150 mSv

Equivalent dose

Elbows
to hands
500 mSv

Knees
to feet
500 mSv

Effective dose
20 mSv/yr averaged
over 5 years
50 mSv in any single
year
to the lens of the eye

150 mSv/a
extremities (hands
and feet) or the skin
500 mSv/a

Apprentices and
students of 16 - 18
years of age
Effective dose
6 mSv/a in a year
Equivalent dose
to the lens of the eye
50 mSv/a
extremities (hands
and feet) or the skin

53

Public D ose Lim its

Members of the public


Effective dose
1 mSv/yr
in special
circumstances 5 mSv
in a single year
provided that 1
mSv/yr averaged
over 5 years is not
exceeded
Equivalent dose
to the lens of the
eye 15 mSv/yr
extremities (hands
and feet) or the skin
50 mSv/yr

54

BiologicalEff
ects ofRadiation
Somatic
Affects cells originally

exposed (cancer)
Affects blood, tissues,
organs, possibly
entire body
Effects range from
slight skin reddening
to death (acute
radiation poisoning)

Genetic
Affects cells of

future generations
Keep levels as low
as possible (wear
lead)
Reproductive cells
most sensitive

55

Eff
ects ofionizing radiation is
determ ined by
Energy of radiation
Material irradiated
Length of exposure
Type of effect
Delay before effect seen
Ability of body to repair itself

56

Basic Safety Factors


Keep exposures As Low As Reasonably

Achievable (ALARA)
Time - Keep exposure times to a minimum
Distance - Inverse square law: by doubling

distance from a source, exposure is dec by a


factor of 4
Shielding wear lead, use lead wall

57

Radiation Exposure

Effects on Personnel

0-0.25Sv (0-25 rem)

No Obvious Injury

0.25-1Sv (25-100 rem)

Possible minor blood count effects temporary

1-2 Sv (100-200 rem)

Noticeable physical changes & Potential


permanent injury ; transient Nausea,
Vomiting

2- 4 Sv (200-400 rem)

Injury & Possible permanent disability,


severe blood count change,
gastrointestinal damage

4 Sv (400 rem)

Fatal to 50% of individuals exposed if no


treatment is received. Severe blood count
change, gastrointestinal damage

8 Sv (800 rem)

Fatal to 95% of individuals exposed if no


treatment is received. Severe blood count
change, gastrointestinal damage

10 Sv (1000 rem)

Fatal to 100% of the individual so exposed,


neurological damage & quick shock
symptoms. Death certain within days.
58

Radiation Symbol
International : Black & Yellow
U.S. : Magenta & Yellow

59

M onitoring Instrum ents


Personal monitoring:
Film badges, bracelet, rings
Pocket dosimeter

60

Basic Safety Factors


Shielding

61

RADIATION
UNDERSTANDING

SAFETY

RADIATION

EFFECTS

Local reddening of skin


1, 50, 000 m R

( in a single shot )
50 % chance of death
4, 00 , 000 m R
( in a single shot )
Loss of fertility
6, 00, 000

mR

( in a single shot )

62

RADIATION

SAFETY

INCIDENTAL EXPOSURE TO RADIATION

1.

CONTACT YOUR

SUPERVISOR.

2.

GIVE FOLLWING DETAILS TO SUPERVISOR


WHERE HE WAS STAYING ?
HOW MUCH TIME HE WAS STAYING ?
HOW AND WHEN HE CAME TO KNOW ABOUT RT ?

3.

SUPERVISOR WILL CONSULT RSO OF NDE

4. RSO WILL CALCULATE RADIATION


IT WITH ANNUAL DOSE LIMIT
5.

DOSE RECEIVED AND

COMPARE

RSO WILL GIVE THE DETAILS TO SUPERVISOR

63

RADIATION

SAFETY

RESPONCEBILITIES OF RADIATION PERSONNEL


RADIOGRAPHER SITE INCHARGE

1. PUT LIGHT & ROPE

2. VACATE THE AREA


BEFORE RT
3. OPERATE CAMERA

1. ESTIMATE AREA
FOR CORDONING

RSO
1. GIVE SAFE
PROCEDURE FOR RT

2. GIVE RT TECHNIQUE

2. DESIGN ENCLOSURES
AND GET BARC
APPROVAL

3. ARRANGE SHIELDING
FOR RADIATION

3.

CO-ORDINATE WITH

AUTHORITIES
4. EDUCATE PERSONNEL
ABOUT RADIATION

64

RADIATION

SAFETY

COMPETANT AUTHORTY FOR RADIATION SAFETY


AER B

B AR C

Frames regulations and


amends rules

Approves safety
practices

Directs BARC to implement


the regulations
Publication of codes and
standards

Survey of radiation work places


Certification of radiation
personnel
65

RESPECT BUT
DO NOT FEAR
RADIATION

66

THANK YOU

67