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You are on page 1of 47

Finite Element

Analysis

Presented by

Niko Manopulo

Agenda

PART I

Introduction and Basic Concepts

1.0

Computational Methods

1.1

1.2

1.3

2.0

2.1

2.2

3.0

Idealization

Discretization

Solution

FEM Notation

Element Types

Mechanichal Approach

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

Strain Energy

External Energy

The Potential Energy Functional

Joint Advanced Student School

St.Petersburg 2005

Agenda

PART II

Mathematical Formulation

4.0

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7

4.8

Approxiamting Functions

The Residual

Galerkins Method

The Weak Form

Solution Space

Linear System of Equations

Connection to the physical system

Joint Advanced Student School

St.Petersburg 2005

Agenda

PART III

Finite Element Discretization

5.0

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7

6.0

7.0

Matrix Form of the Problem

Element Stiffness Matrix

Element Mass Matrix

External Work Integral

Assembling

Linear System of Equations

References

Question and Answers

Joint Advanced Student School

St.Petersburg 2005

PART I

Introduction and Basic Concepts

St.Petersburg 2005

1.1 Idealization

Mathematical Models

A model is a symbolic device built to

simulate and predict aspects of behavior of a

system.

Abstraction of physical reality

Implicit modelling consists of using existent

pieces of abstraction and fitting them into the

particular situation (e.g. Using general

purpose FEM programs)

Explicit modelling consists of building the

model from scratch

Joint Advanced Student School

St.Petersburg 2005

1.2 Dicretization

1. Finite Difference Discretization

Stability Problems

Loss of physical meaning

Physical meaning is conserved on elements

Interpretation and Control is easier

St.Petersburg 2005

1.3 Solution

1. Linear System Solution Algorithms

Gaussian Elimination

Fast Fourier Transform

Relaxation Techniques

Analysis

St.Petersburg 2005

Two interpretations

1. Physical Interpretation:

The continous physical model is divided into

finite pieces called elements and laws of

nature are applied on the generic element.

The results are then recombined to

represent the continuum.

2. Mathematical Interpretation:

The differetional equation reppresenting the

system is converted into a variational form,

which is approximated by the linear

combination of a finite set of trial functions.

Joint Advanced Student School

St.Petersburg 2005

Elements are defined by the following

properties:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Dimensionality

Nodal Points

Geometry

Degrees of Freedom

Nodal Forces

(Non homogeneous RHS of the DE)

Joint Advanced Student School

St.Petersburg 2005

St.Petersburg 2005

Introduction of basic mechanical concepts

Introduction of governing equations

Mechanical concepts used in mathematical

derivation

St.Petersburg 2005

St.Petersburg 2005

Hookes Law:

( x ) E ( x )

where

du

( x)

dx

1

( x) ( x)

2

Joint Advanced Student School

St.Petersburg 2005

Integrating over the Volume of the Bar:

1

1 L

1 L

U dV p dx ( EAu ' )u ' dx

2 V

2 0

2 0

1 L

U u ' EAu ' dx

2 0

All quantities may depend on x.

St.Petersburg 2005

1. The distributed load q(x)

2. The point end load P. This can be

included in q.

External Energy:

L

W qu dx

0

St.Petersburg 2005

Energy Functional

The unknown strain Function u is found by

minimizing the TPE functional described below:

U W

or

[u ( x)] U [u ( x)] W [u ( x)]

St.Petersburg 2005

PART II

Mathematical Formulation

Hrennikof and McHenry formulated a 2D

structural problem as an assembly of bars

and beams

Courant used a variational formulation to

approximate PDEs by linear interpolation

over triangular elements

Turner wrote a seminal paper on how to

solve one and two dimensional problems

using structural elements or triangular and

rectangular elements of continuum.

Joint Advanced Student School

St.Petersburg 2005

dimensional bar described above can be described as

follows :

L[u ]

d

du

( p( x) ) z ( x)u q( x),

dx

dx

u (0) u (1) 0.

St.Petersburg 2005

0 x 1

(1)

It follows that:

L[u ] q 0

the whole domain we obtain:

1

0

(2)

Therefore:

v L2 (0,1)

Equation (2) is called variational form

Joint Advanced Student School

St.Petersburg 2005

approximation function i.e.

N

u ( x ) U ( x ) c j j ( x )

j 1

v( x) V ( x) d j j ( x)

j 1

suitable to the particular problem. For example the choice of

sine and cosine functions satisfy boundary conditions hence it

could be a good choice.

Joint Advanced Student School

St.Petersburg 2005

As the differential operator L[u] is second order

u C 2 (0,1) U C 2 (0,1)

subspace of the infinite-dimensional function space C 2(0,1)

U S N (0 ,1) C 2 (0 ,1)

V S N (0 ,1) L2 (0 ,1)

Joint Advanced Student School

St.Petersburg 2005

(V , r ) 0,

V S N

r ( x) L[U ] q

r(x) is called the residual (as the name of the method suggests)

The vanishing inner product shows that the residual is orthogonal to

all functions V in the test space.

St.Petersburg 2005

N

Substituting

V ( x) d j j ( x) into

(V , L[U ] q ) 0

j 1

N

d

j 1

( j , L[U ] q ) 0

d j ,

j 1, 2 , ... , N

the above equation has to be valid for all choices of dj which

implies that

( j , L[U ] q ) 0

j 1, 2 , ... , N

St.Petersburg 2005

One obvious choice of j would be taking it equal to j

This Choice leads to the Galerkins Method

( j , L[U ] q) 0

j 1, 2 , ... , N

problem. Because the so chosen test space has more

continuity than necessary.

Therefore it is worthwile for this and other reasons to convert

the problem into a more symmetrical form

This can be acheived by integrating by parts the initial strong

form of the problem.

St.Petersburg 2005

L[u ]

d

du

( p ( x) ) z ( x)u q ( x ),

dx

dx

0 x 1

u (0) u (1) 0.

1

0

Integrating by parts

1

0

St.Petersburg 2005

1

0

A(v , u ) (v , q ) 0

where

1

0

from the problem making it possible less continouity than the

previous form. This is why this form is called weak form of the

problem.

Joint Advanced Student School

St.Petersburg 2005

Now that derivative of v comes into the picture v needs to have more

continoutiy than those in L2. As we want to keep symmetry its

appropriate to choose functions that produce bounded values of

1

A(u , u ) ( p (u ' ) 2 zu 2 ) dx

sufficient

1

2

2

(

u

'

)

u

dx

Functions obeying this rule belong to the so called Sobolev Space and

they are denoted by H1. We require v and u to satisfy

boundary

1

conditions so we denote the resulting space as H 0

Joint Advanced Student School

St.Petersburg 2005

A(v , u ) (v , q)

v H 01

Substituting the approximate solutions obtained earlier in the

more general WRM we obtain

U ,V S 0N H 01

A(V , U ) (V , q )

V S 0N

them to have the same base) and swapping summations and

integrals we obtain

N

c A(

k 1

, k ) ( j , q) ,

Joint Advanced Student School

St.Petersburg 2005

j 1, 2 , ... , N

Mechanical Formulation

Mathematical Formulation

1

1 L

U u ' EAu ' dx

2 0

L

0

W qu dx

(v , q )

U W 0

A(v , u ) (v , q ) 0

St.Petersburg 2005

PART III

Finite Element Discretization

0 x 1

p, z 0

u (0) u (1) 0.

the following mesh

0 x0 x1 ... x N 1

Joint Advanced Student School

St.Petersburg 2005

finite element.

x x j 1

x x

j 1

j

x j 1 x

j ( x)

x j 1 x j

x j 1 x x j

x j x x j 1

otherwise

St.Petersburg 2005

approximate solution U(x)

values of U at the interior nodes

Joint Advanced Student School

St.Petersburg 2005

previously derived Galerkins Method

N

c A(

k 1

, k ) ( j , q ) ,

j 1, 2 , ... , N

matrix notation

St.Petersburg 2005

U ( x) c j 1 j 1 ( x) c j j ( x)

x [ x j 1 , x j ]

U ( x) [c j 1

j 1 ( x)

c j 1

c j ]

[ j 1 ( x) j ( x)]

(

x

)

c

j

j

x [ x j 1 , x j ]

V ( x) [d j 1

j 1 ( x)

d j 1

d j ]

[ j 1 ( x) j ( x)] d

(

x

)

j

j

Joint Advanced Student School

St.Petersburg 2005

x [ x j 1 , x j ]

U ' ( x) [c j 1

1/ hj

c j 1

c j ]

[1 / h j 1 / h j ] c

1

/

h

j

j

h j x j x j 1

x [ x j 1 , x j ]

Derivative of V is analogus

V ' ( x) [d j 1

1/ hj

d j 1

d j ]

[1 / h j 1 / h j ]

1

/

h

d

j

St.Petersburg 2005

x [ x j 1 , x j ]

follows:

N

[ A (V ,U ) (V , q)

j 1

]0

A j (V ,U ) ASj (V ,U ) AMj (V ,U )

A (V ,U )

S

j

xj

x j 1

A (V ,U )

M

j

xj

x j 1

pV 'U ' dx

zVU dx

xj

(V , q ) Vq dx

x j 1

St.Petersburg 2005

A (V , U ) [d j 1

S

j

A (V , U ) [d j 1

S

j

d j ]

d j ]

xj

x j 1

p

x j1 h 2j

xj

1/ hj

p

[1 / h j 1 / h j ] dx

1/ hj

c j 1

c

j

c j 1

1 1 c j 1

1 1 dx c [d j 1 d j ]K j c

j

j

p

Kj

hj

1 1

1 1

St.Petersburg 2005

A (V , U ) [d j 1

M

j

d j ]

j 1

x j1 z j [ j 1 j ] dx

xj

A (V ,U ) [d j 1

S

j

c j 1

d j ]M j

c

j

zh j 2 1

Mj

6 1 2

St.Petersburg 2005

c j 1

c

j

Integral

function q(x)

xj

(V , q) Vq dx

x j 1

q ( x) q j 1 j 1 ( x) q j j ( x),

x [ x j 1 , x j ]

j 1

q j 1

(V , q) j [d j 1 , d j ]

[ j 1 , j ]

dx [d j 1 , d j ] l j

x j 1

j

qj

h j 2q j 1 q j

lj

Element load vector

6 q j 1 2q j

xj

St.Petersburg 2005

4.6 Assembling

system in fact we have to sum each integral over all the

elements

For doing so we can extend the dimension of each element

matrix to N and then put the 2x2 matrix at the appropriate

position inside it

With all matrices and vectors having the same dimension the

summation looks like

N

j 1

c1

c

S

T

A j d Kc c 2

...

c

N 1

d1

d

d 2

...

d

N 1

St.Petersburg 2005

2 1

1 2 1

1 2 1

p

K

h

1 2 1

1 2

4.6 Assembling

Doing the same for the Mass Matrix and for the Load Vector

A

j 1

4 1

1 4 1

M

j

d Mc

T

zh

M

6

(V , q)

j 1

d Tl

h

l

6

St.Petersburg 2005

1

1

4 1

1

q0 4q1 q2

q1 4q2 q3

...

q N 2 4q N 1 q N

N

[ A (V ,U ) (V , q)

j 1

]0

d T [(K M )c l ] 0

(K M )c l 0

St.Petersburg 2005

References

Carlos Felippa

http://caswww.colorado.edu/courses.d/IFEM.d/IFE

M.Ch06.d/IFEM.Ch06.pdf

http://www.cs.rpi.edu/~flaherje/FEM/fem1.ps

An Analysis of the Finite Element Method

Prentice-Hall,1973

Joint Advanced Student School

St.Petersburg 2005

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