Fundamental Laws
2. ENERGY EQUATION
 Energy = Capacity of doing work
 May exist in variety of forms and maybe
transformed from one type of energy to another
 The first law of thermodynamics puts forward
the principle of conservation of energy.( Energy
neither generated or consumed)

Question: Develop
energy equation
from this system.
ANSWER
Assumptions:
1.Potential and kinetic energy are negligible
2.Simplified form of enthalpy and internal energy, h = u, h= u + pv or h
=CpT
3.No shaft work
Example 2.7
Given
For liquid
For vapor
TUTORIAL 2
(Final Exam, Oct 2007)
Process fluid at temperature To flowing into a perfectly
mixed tank in which it is heated by stream coil. Feed
rate is at F (volume/time) with constant density, , and
heat capacity Cp. Hold up in the tank V (volume) is
constant. Steam is added at a rate of S (energy/time)
that heat the process fluid up to temperature T.
Assume pressure in both streams remain unchanged,
develop a mathematical model for the energy flow of
the system. State all your assumptions.
(10 marks)
the first tank uses steam to heat the oil. Let Q 1 be the heat addition rate
in the first tank.
There is one energy balance for each tank.
this system.
The parameter values that are known are p, Cp, V1, V2, and F. The heat input to the
first tank Q1 would be set by the position of the control valve in the steam line.
Thus we are left with two dependent variables, T1 and T2, and we have two
TUTORIAL
Please refer handout.
1.Final Exam Oct 2004
2.Q2, Final Exam April 2011