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Chapter 1: Fundamentals Laws

Prepared by: Lim Ying Pei

FKK, UiTM Shah Alam

Fundamental Laws
- Energy = Capacity of doing work
- May exist in variety of forms and maybe
transformed from one type of energy to another
- The first law of thermodynamics puts forward
the principle of conservation of energy.( Energy
neither generated or consumed)

- Written for a general open system (where

flow of material in and out of the system can
occur) it is

- The units of this equation is energy per


Example 2.6 (Macroscopic


Question: Develop
energy equation
from this system.

1.Potential and kinetic energy are negligible
2.Simplified form of enthalpy and internal energy, h = u, h= u + pv or h

3.No shaft work

Example 2.7

Question: Prove that the energy equation of the

system (vapor and liquid contents of
the tank) above is


For liquid
For vapor

(Final Exam, Oct 2007)
Process fluid at temperature To flowing into a perfectly
mixed tank in which it is heated by stream coil. Feed
rate is at F (volume/time) with constant density, , and
heat capacity Cp. Hold up in the tank V (volume) is
constant. Steam is added at a rate of S (energy/time)
that heat the process fluid up to temperature T.
Assume pressure in both streams remain unchanged,
develop a mathematical model for the energy flow of
the system. State all your assumptions.
(10 marks)


Let us consider a process in which two energy balances are needed to

model the system.

The flow rate F of oil passing through two perfectly mixed tanks in series
is constant at 90 ft3/min. The density p of the oil is constant at 40 lbm/ft3,
and its heat capacity Cp, is 0.6 Btu/lbm.F. The volume of the first tank V1,
is constant at 450 ft3, and the volume of the second tank V2, is constant
at 90 ft3. The temperature of the oil entering the first tank is To, and is
150F at the initial steady state. The temperatures in the two tanks are T1
and T2.
They are both equal to 250F at the initial steady state. A heating coil in

the first tank uses steam to heat the oil. Let Q 1 be the heat addition rate
in the first tank.
There is one energy balance for each tank.

Since the throughput is constant FO = F1 = F2 = F.

Since volumes, densities, and heat capacities are all constant, Eqs.

(3.10) and (3.11) can be simplified

Lets check the degrees of freedom of

this system.

The parameter values that are known are p, Cp, V1, V2, and F. The heat input to the

first tank Q1 would be set by the position of the control valve in the steam line.

Thus we are left with two dependent variables, T1 and T2, and we have two

equations. So the system is correctly specified.

Please refer handout.
1.Final Exam Oct 2004
2.Q2, Final Exam April 2011