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Heredity and

Gene: Small section of a chromosome; basic

unit for transmission of heredity; string of
chemicals provide instructions for
manufacture of proteins
Chromosome: One of 46 molecules of DNA
in each body cell where all genes live
DNA: Chemical composition of the molecules
that contain genes that have the instructions
for cells to manufacture various proteins

Allele: Variation that makes one gene differ

from others for same characteristic (e. g.

eyebrow shape
Genome: Entire set of genes containing
instructions to make a living organism Each
species has its own genome (Humans have
about 20,000 genes)

The Beginning
Sperm and ovum ( gametes) unite = zygote

(1 cell)
Copies itself over and over = embryo-> fetus->
Genetic inheritance for life = genotype
Homozygous genes are 2 genes (one from Mom,
one from Dad) that are exactly the same in every
letter of the code These are autosomes
(( ) 22 of the 23 pairs)
When they are not exactly same they are
The 23rd pair is is the chromosomal pair that
determine sex Every pair has one X and one
other If the other looks like X = female, if other
looks like Y = male (sometimes there are errors)

Before the eight-cell stage (before

differentiation and specialization)

the cells are Stem cells can
become any type of specialized
If the zygote splits =
monozygotic twins (or triplets,
If two ova are fertilized at same
time = dyzogotic twins (non-identical

Assisted Reproductive
1. Drugs given to woman to increase ovulation
2. In Vitro Fertilization ( IVF)

Sperm and (surgically removed)ova are mixed

in petri dish Zygote(s) is/are placed into
womans uterus It may implant and develop into
a baby
3. Intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection
(ICSI) Sperm inserted directly into ovum
4. Donated sperm placed into womans uterus
(AKA artificial insemination)
5. Donor ova (not from mom) and donor uterus
(usually paid to rent a womb)are also used

All About Genes

- Observable

Most traits are polygenic (influenced by
many genes)and multifactorial (influenced
by many factors)
Most traits are epigenetic = environmental
factors (injury, drug abuse, poor nutrition,
etc.) affect genes and their expression
Human Genome Project completed in 2001:
International effort to map the human genetic
code of 18,000 23,000 genes


Dominant - recessive
Pair of alleles

interact so that phenotype expresses

dominant gene
ex. Brown eyes = dominant; blue eyes=

Carrier = person whose genotype
has an unexpressed gene For that gene to be
expressed, both parents must be carriers and
must pass it to the offspring ,
X-linked (on the X chromosome) If a male
that gene from Mom he will
express it, because the Y (from Dad) has no
counter-acting gene. Ex. 20 times more boys
than girls are colour-blind

Heritability ; a statistic that

indicates how much of the variation in a

particular trait, within a particular population, in
a particular place and time can be attributed to
genes. (Heritability of height is very
high (90%) when well-nourished ; low
(20%) when not.
Alcoholism inherited via genes AND
personality traits, context, body size, fat,
metabolic rate....)

Genetic Disorders
Down Syndrome

( Trisomy-21) three copies of

chromosome 21. Some problems include
unusual facial features, heart abnormalities,
varying degrees of intellectual difficulties.
Likelihood increases with moms age.
20=1/800; 39=1/67; 44=1/16
Huntingtons - genetic miscode-more than
35 repetitions of a particular triplet - effects
begin only at middle age, half the offspring
would inherit same gene Also high incidence ,
of carriers:

Sickle-cell anemia

thalassemia, Tay-Sachs

Prenatal Development

Germinal: First 2 weeks- rapid cell division,

beginning differentiation, separate into inner

(embryo)and outer cells (placenta) implants in
uterine wall 60% (natural) 70% IVF(in vitro
fertilization) dont implant
Embryo: Week 3-8 basic forms of body
structures develop, heart pulsates at 3 weeks,
has tail, 7 weeks 2.5 cm., eyes, nose,
digestive system, toe formation are visible
Fetus: Week 9-birth 51. cm

Third Month: 87 grams (3oz.), 7.5 cm (3 in.)

long) Sexual differentiation-ISRY present-male

develops Head develops first(cephalocaudal =
head-totail, extremities form last (proximodistal)
Middle 3 Months: Digestive, excretory systems.
nails, teeth buds, hair grows. Brain increases
about 6 times (up to million brain cells per
minute!) Nervous system becomes responsive
Age of Viability: With intensive care can
survive at 22 weeks.

Last Trimester : Fetus gains 2.1

kg (4.5 lb)
Lungs begin to expand, heart valves, arteries,
veins mature, hearing becomes more acute,
fetus responds to moms moods
Apgar: Assesses newborns colour, HR,
muscle tone, respiration, reflexes at 1 minute
and again at 5 minutes. Each measure is
scored 0, 1, or 2; total of 5 scores is compared
to 10. 7 is normal.


Substances(smoking -Alcohol) that can impair

prenatal development (e. g. drugs, viruses,

chemicals and behavioural teratogens that
can harm the prenatal brain (e. g. leading to
impaired intellectual, emotional functioning)
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Cluster of
birth defects (distorted facial features, slow
growth, retarded
mental development) in
child of woman who drinks ETOH while
pregnant later causes FAE (hyperactivity,
impaired spatial reasoning, slow learning, etc.)

Low Birthweight (LBW) under 2500 gms.

(under 5 1/2 lbs)

Very Low Birthweight (VLBW) under 1500
gms (under 3 lbs)
Extremely Low Birthweight (ELBW) under
1,000 gms (2 lbs, 3 oz)
Small for Gestational

(SGA)birth weight is lower than expected

Preterm Birth at 35 or fewer weeks
May experience cognitive, sensory
In adulthood-obesity, diabetes, heart disease

Complications: Cerebral palsy

genetic vulnerability, teratogens, anoxia at

Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral
Assessment Scale measures 46 behaviours
(20 reflexes) Day 1 or 2
Reflexes: (survival) breathing, temperature
maintenance, sucking,
And Babinski, stepping, swimming, palmar
grasping, moro (startle
Postpartum depression : New mom feels
Bonding: Strong connection forms between
parent and baby

First Two Years Biosocial

Double birthweight by 4th month, triple by
age one. If nutrition inadequate, only brain
continues to grow (head- sparing) food go
first to brain.
Sleep Full-term newborns 15-17 hours/day
Half is REM Most one-year olds sleep 10
hours/night, nap for 2 hours

The Brain

Neurons talk to other neurons via nerve

fibres. The axon of one nerve fibre meets the

dendrites (spread out like tree branches) of
another nerve fibre, sends electrical impulses,
at synapses ( intersections).
Dendrites transmit the impulses via chemicals

neurotransmitters that travel across the

synaptic gap.
In the first 24 months a rapid, temporary

increase in dendrites occurs = transient

exuberance ,

Shapes brain function

Experience-expectant = basic experiences an

infant is expected to have for normal

Experience-dependent = brain functions that
are dependent on particular experiences that only
some infants have (e. g. cultural variations,
But look out for
Shaken-baby syndrome: Life-threatening
injury (to brain) when baby is shaken forcefully,
ruptures blood vessels , breaks neural connections

The Senses
Sensation: Response from sensory system to

a stimulus
Perception: Cortex interprets the sensation
Hearing: Infants startle to sudden noises
Later particular attention paid to patterns of
sounds and syllables careful listening to
human speech
Seeing: Least mature sense at birth
Binocular vision: (ability to coordinate the
focus of both eyes) at about 14 weeks

Motor Skills
Learned abilities to move some body part
Gross Motor Skills: Abilities to coordinate

body parts to produce large movements (e. g.

crawling) that emerge directly from reflexes
Fine Motor Skills: Abilities involving small
body movements, coordination (e.g.
movements of mouth precede grabbing with
hands) Fine motor skills include drawing,
writing, blowing bubbles, spitting!

Health Issues
Immunization protects millions of children

from disease and potential long-term damage

Nutrition Breast-feeding reduces infant
death and disease. Vitamin D is needed at 6
Protein-calorie malnutrition causes
Kwashiorkor Chronic malnutrition in
childhood protein deficiency increases
vulnerability to disease
Marasmus severe infant malnutrition
causes growth cessation, tissue-wasting,

Cognitive Development 0-2

Piaget Sensorimotor Intelligence

1. Primary Circular (a) 0-1 month-reflexes;
(b) 1-4 months-acquired adaptations (suck
pacifier differently from nipple)
2. Secondary Circular (a) 4-8 mo.
respond to people, objects; (b) 8-12
adaptation and anticipation (clap hands to ask
parent to play)
3. Tertiary Circular (a) 12-18 active
experimentation little scientist; (18-24)- new
means thru mental considerations (Consider
before doing)

Object Permanence , : The

realization that object still exist even when not

Peek-a-boo; look for toy under furniture, find

hidden keys......................
research method to study
loss of interest can detect babies awareness of
differences, change, perception

Information Processing theory compares

human thinking to computer functioning

Affordances: Perception depends upon

sensory awareness, immediate motivation,

current development, past experience all
determine response
Depth Perception: Research shows
which affordances are perceived. Visual
cliff gives illusion of sudden drop from
one horizontal surface to another. At 3
mos., drop is noted, 6 mos, baby can be
urged to crawl over cliff, 10 mos. refuse
shows maturing of visual cortex

Memory requires experience and brain

maturation language development allows for

easier retention of memories
Implicit memory: Automatic
is hidden until stimulated, usually stored as
habits, routines, sensations (from past
Explicit , memory: Easily
retrieved on demand, (learned words,
dates, concepts)
Research: Early memories help infants learn
words; language encodes memories

Before Birth Language learning begins

several weeks before birth; newborns prefer

Moms language, if mom is bilingual, newborn
can distinguish and differentiate between
them Newborns prefer human speech to
other sounds - 6 month old can distinguish
native language from others by watching
mouth movements
Child-directed speech fosters early
language learning

Babbling extended repetition of some

syllables at 6-9 months. Deaf babies

eventually stop because cannot hear
Holophrase single word that expresses an
entire thought (6-15 mos. understand about
10 times more words than they can say)
Beginning of year two - gradual vocabulary
Naming Explosion ( about 18
mos.)Sudden increase in vocabulary (more
nouns than verbs)

Grammar: All the ways language

communicates meaning (word order, verb

forms, pronouns, intonations..................)
Grammar becomes obvious with twoword combinations (about 21 months),
correlates with vocabulary size
Development in two languages proceeds
separately, in language-specific manner,
does not slow down

Theories of Language
Theory One: Infants need to be taught

1. Parents (and caregivers) are experts

2. Frequent repetition is instructive
3.Well-taught infant becomes well-spoken adult
Behaviourists note that parents of most

verbal children talked frequently to their

infants Nine month old infants of highly
responsive moms reached naming explosion
as early as 15 mos.


Social-pragmatic theory Infants learn to

communicate because they are social beings

and depend on one another for survival and
The emotional message of speech is the focus
of early communication ex. Babies love
Teletubbies, dont learn much from it One
year-olds learned vocabulary better when
taught by in person than by same person on
Children want to understand intentions of the
speaker, acquire language as a by-product

Theory Three
Language Acquisition Device (LAD)

Universal acquisition of grammar is evidence
that humans have an innate mental structure
that prepares them to learn language
Infants are primed to listen for speech, no
reward is necessary Words are expected by
the developing brain
Language is a window on human nature,
exposing deep and universal features of our
thoughts and feelings (Pinker, 2007)

0-2 Psychosocial
Emotional Development First social

response= social smile to a human (6 weeks)

1. Stranger wariness Infant expresses
concern (clinging, sadness) in presence of
2. Separation Anxiety (9-14 months) when
familiar caregiver leaves Usually subsides at
age 3 After age 3 = emotional disorder
By age 2 toddler can display all emotions

Self-awareness baby realizes s/he is distinct

from others Sense of self leads to

sense of others (15-24 months, possibly
begins earlier)
Brain maturation:
Allows moderation of emotions
Memory improves. All emotions depend partly
on memory.
May lead to emotional confusion
(synesthesia) elicited by cross-modal
perceptions - sensory connections exist in not
yet well-formed boundaries between sensory
parts of cortex

Temperament : Influenced by genetic

predisposition, prenatal development and

early experiences
New York Longitudinal Study: Studied
temperament by exposing infants to
frightening stimuli
Results: By 3 mos. Infants could be
classified into 4 categories
1. Easy 40%
2. Difficult 10%
3. Slow to warm up 15%
4. Hard to classify 35% HUH?

Theories of Infant Psychosocial

Oral stage ( year 1) pleasure from mouth
Anal stage (year 2) pleasure from anus
Erikson: (Trust and Autonomy)
First crisis: Infant learns basic trust when
needs are met or learns mistrust if needs not
Second crisis: (autonomy Vs shame and
doubt ) (begins at 18 months)Toddlers succeed
in gaining sense of their own abilities, feel
autonomous or if they fail, feel shame and doubt

Behaviourism: (Skinner)
Reinforcement Theory (not in text)
Infants learn by being rewarded for a

particular behaviour (ex. Dad smiles when

baby says goo) to repeat that behaviour. If
punished (Dad walks away)will stop that
Social Learning (Bandura) Learning happens
because child wants to imitate an admired
person who is rewarded for a behaviour. (See
Bobo doll experiment)

Cognitive Theory: (Piaget)

Early relationships help infants develop a

working model, a set of beliefs (schema

) about self and others can be modified
throughout life by experience
Ethnotheory: Based on the values, beliefs,
practices of a particular culture (ex. Children
should be seen and not heard) who said that?

Social Bonds
Synchrony A coordinated rapid

interaction between caregiver and infant.

Parent detects emotion from infants facial
expression and body language responds
infant learns to connect internal state with
external expression Important factor in
psychological and biological development
(heart rate, brain maturation, weight gain)


(Mary Ainsworth)

Lasting emotional bond between infant and

caregiver influences relationships

throughout life
Infants shows attachment by proximityseeking (approach behaviour) and contactmaintaining (touching)
Caregiver shows attachment by responding to
infants sounds, behaviours, checking on
sleeping baby, etc.

Birth-6 weeks Preattachment Newborn

signals need for others. Positive responses

comforts infant, allows for more interactionseeking
6 weeks 8 months Attachment in the
Making Infants respond positively to familiar
people whose responses are comforting
infant learns trust
8 months 2 years Classic Secure
Attachment Infant and caregiver seek
proximity Infant fusses when caregiver leaves,
plays happily when caregiver is present

Patterns of Attachment

Secure (50-70%) Child plays when Mom in

room, pauses, not so happy when Mom leaves,

welcomes Mom on return, back to play
Insecure- avoidant (10-20%) - Child plays
when Mom in room, continues when Mom
leaves, ignores Mom on return
Insecure-resistant- ambivalent

((10-20%) Child clings to Mom, is unhappy, may

stop playing when Mom leaves, angry, may hit
Mom on return
Disorganized (5-10%) Child is cautious when
Mom in room, may stare, yell when Mom leaves,
Acts strangely on her return, may scream, throw

Social Referencing
Definition: Person becomes a model for

appropriate reactions
Close father-infant relationships teach
infants (especially boys) about appropriate
emotional expressions
Father-Mother combination can provide
more of what the infant needs than one
parent can DUH!!!!
Each set of parents finds the best way
(hopefully) to help their infant thrive


High quality daycare provides:

1. Adequate attention- group of no more than 5
infants needs 2 familiar continuous caregivers
2.Language, motor development easily
manipulated toys, songs, positive talk
3. Health and safety cleanliness routines, safe
play and exploration,
4. Professionalism Caregivers with experience,
certification in ECE High morale, low turnover
5. Warm and responsive caregivers engage
children in active play, guidance in problemsolving

Findings about daycare:

For low income families centre care is beneficial
For less impoverished ;
families many

cognitive benefits, especially in language

For infants under one year day care has much
less influence than mother-infant relationship
Day care may be detrimental if Mom is
insensitive and if baby is in poor-quality day care
more than 20 hours/week in a program
Some results suggest that mothers who work fulltime provided slightly higher quality home
Most important Good quality care by