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CAREER PLANNING,CAREER

DEVELOPMENT AND CAREER


STRATEGY

CAREER

A career is a sequence of work related positions


occupied by a person during a lifetime
Definition
A sequence of jobs that constitute what a
person does for a living.
(Schermerhorn: 2002)

Career path:- is a chart


showing the possible
directions and career
opportunities available in an
organisation.
Career Plateau:- is a position
from which someone is
unlikely to move to a higher
level of work responsibility.

MAJOR CAREER INFLUENCES


ARE:
People

who have influenced


Major work achievements
Successful and happy at work
Risks taken
Helped others

CAREER PLANNING
Definitions
Career planning is a process of
systematically matching career goals and
individual capabilities with opportunities
for their fulfillment.
(Schermerhorn, Hunt and Osborn:
2003).
Career planning is the process of
enhancing an employees future value
(Schwind, Das and Wager:2004)

Career planning

Organisational needs

Individuals Needs

Strategic

Operational

Personal

Professional

Current
Competencies

Employee
turnover

Tenure

Career stage

future
competencies

Family issues

Absenteeism

education and
training

Promotions
aspirations

Performance
Potential

Current career
path

Market Changes

Talent
Management

Joint Ventures

Productivity

Innovation

Quality

Growth

Outsourcing

Mobility
Spouse's job
Other Interest

Restructuring

Matching
Matching Career Needs of Organisational and Individual

Characteristics of Career Planning


It is an ongoing process.
It develops and shares a personal life
career diagram/model/timeline.
It defines life career, abilities, and
interest of employees.
It describes various roles an individual
may have as a part of his life career.
It strengthens work related activities in
the organisation.

Objectives
To develop an awareness of each employees
uniqueness.
To identify positive characteristics about
employees, which can harnesses for
Organisational development.
To identify personal interest, abilities, strengths
and weaknesses and how they relate to careers.
To foster effective team building skills.
To develop respect for the feelings and beliefs
of others.

Importance of career planning


Career planning develops promotable
employees.
It reduces employee turnover.
It encourages employees growth and
development.
It reduces hoarding
It can help the organisation prepare
certain categories of employees for more
important jobs.

CAREER PLANNING PROCESS


Self Assessment

Career Exploration

Career goal Setting

Career Preparation

Self- Marketing

Steps of career planning process

1. Self Assessment
It involves gathering information about an
employee to assist him in making a decision
about his career. The employee should
develop an understanding of self including
values, interests, aptitudes, abilities, personal
traits, and desired life style.

Process of Self assessment


Develop
commitment

Execute and check


action plan

Develop selfassessment goals

Define action plan

Plan selfassessment goals

Execute selfassessment

Oneself

Strengths

Skills, personality, interest


and values

Weakness
Opportunities
Threats

Barriers

Opportunities
OBJECTIVES
Career vision
requirements

Opportunities

Barriers
Others

Opportunities

Competition and
co-operation

Networking,
Competencies and
Employability

Environmental
Influences
Career Needs- opportunity Assessment

One of the modern and scientific method of


Self- assessment is SWOT Analysis.
SWOT Analysis focuses on the internal and
external environments, examining
strengths and weaknesses in the external
environment and opportunities and threats
in the external environment.

Employees Strength :-refers to internal positive


aspects that are under control and upon which an
employee may capitalize in planning.
Employee Weaknesses:- refers to internal negative
aspects upon which employee may plan for
improvement.
Employees opportunities:- positive external
conditions upon which an employee may take
advantage.
Employee Threats:- negative external conditions that
are not under the control but the effect of which has
to be lessened by an employee.

CAREER SWOT ANALYSIS


Employees Strengths

INTERNAL
Employees Weaknesses

Work Experience

Lack of Work Experience

Proper Education

Lack of Proper Education

Strong job knowledge

Lack of job knowledge

Transferable skills

Weak skills

Positive personal characteristics

Negative personal characteristics

Good Networking

Poor Networking

Employees Opportunities

EXTERNAL
Employees Threats

Buoyancy in HR market

Downslide in HR market

Cashing on new/higher education

Competition from fellow professional

Skill shortages

Competitors with superior skills

Increased self-knowledge

Competitors with better job hunting skills

Increased professional development

Limited professional development

Posses unique skills sets

Posses general skills sets

After SWOT an employee should use that information to


plan how to market himself.

MARKETING PLANNING PROCESS( 3- step process)


1.

Identifying objectives

Determining objectives

Developing marketing strategies

Strategizing an action programme

2. Identifying developments needs


Feedback from others
praise and constructive criticism
Knowing strengths and
development needs
Plan of action for development

Organisational Assessment

Competency Areas
Gaining self- Awareness
Improving self- confidence
Understanding time and stress management
Strategies for gaining Competencies

Attending workshops for study skills, time


management and stress management.
Identifying symptoms of stress.
Identifying personality style
Demonstrating skills in overcoming selfdefeating behaviours.

2. CAREER EXPLORATION

Second step allows individual to investigate the world of work in


greater depth, narrow a general occupational direction into a
specific one through an informed decision making process.

It can be started by:


Learning academic and career entrance requirements.
Learning related majors and careers to ones interest.
Investigating education and training period
Learning skills and experience required.
Planning academic and career alternatives
Learning job market trends

Competency Areas
Gaining research and investigative skills
Enhancing internal locus of control
Practicing decision- making, problem solving and
critical thinking skills.
Strategies for gaining Competencies
Investigating careers in the HR market
Spending time with professionals in different careers.
Attending Job/ Career Fairs and/ or Career panels.
Seeking information from career counselors.

3. CAREER GOAL SETTING


In this step individuals evaluate occupational
choices and gain practical experience through
internships, cooperative education, campus
activities etc..
Career Search
Individual role

Matching
Objectivity
Transparency

Job Search

Organisation
al level
Matching

Fig:- Career Goal Setting

Occupational choices can be made:


Individual career Counseling
Information Services
- Job posting systems
- Skills requirements
- Career paths
- HR department

Competency Areas:
Enhancing Self management skills
Obtaining work related, transferable skills
Improving interpersonal, written and oral
communication skills.
Strategies for gaining competencies
Participating in the Alumni External
Programmes for networking.
Choosing courses to compliment career goals.
Conducting informational interviews.

4. Career Preparation

Acquiring the additional skills, knowledge and educatio


is needed for starting new career.
It can be done by learning how to prepare saleable
resume, cover letters and practicing skills for
appearing interviews successfully.
Organisation should provide following services to
employees
Mentoring
Coaching
Job Rotation
Career Assistance Programmes
Managing self development

5. Self Marketing

Employees have to adopt strategies to attractively


package and market themselves to their present
or prospective organisation
Promotes self to a
low extent

Promotes self to a
high extent

Independent

Promoter

Promotes others to
a low extent

Fig:- Self Marketing

Team Player

Strategist

Promotes others to
a high extent

Motivation level influences career choices


Self- Directed
High
performance
employee

Enjoy work
Accept responsibility and
accountability

Little ambition
Marginal
Performance
employees

Dislike work
Avoid responsibility and
accountability

Fig:- Characteristics of High & Marginal Performance Employees

CAREER DEVELOPMENT
Career development involves making decision
about an occupation/profession and engaging in
activities to attain career goals.
Definitions:
Career development is total constellation of
economic, sociological, psychological,
educational, physical and chance factors that
combine to shape ones career.
( Reardon, Lenz, Sampson, and Peterson;
Sears

Planning for career development


Involves
Self- Knowledge
Knowledge of the organisation
Establishing clear cut goals and steps to
attain these goals

THUMB RULE FOR EVALUATING


CAREER
FACTS
F= Fit
A= Advancement
C= Compensation
T= Training
S= Site

CHARACTERISTICS

OBJECTIVES OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT

To devise intervention strategies for developing,


engaging, rewarding and retaining talented personnel.
To plan, design, and implement life-long career
development programmes.
To understand career development from a
developmental and multicultural perspective.
To understand the use of assessment procedures in
career development interventions.
To facilitate understanding of personal, social,
economic, and other factors related to the world of
work for employees.

IMPORTANCE OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT

It helps in developing entrepreneurship spirit


and potential amongst the employees.
To facilitate the acquisition of requisite skills,
knowledge and competencies for
organisational excellence.
To devise and implement a talent management
system.
To facilitate succession planning and
development to ensure long-term growth and
success of the organisation.

THEORIES OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT


Structural Theories
Traits and factor Theory
Vocational Personalities and Environment
theory
Socioeconomic Theory
2. Developmental Theories
Supers Theory
Krumboltzs Social Learning Theory
Decision Making Theories
Cognitive Theories
1.

STRUCTURAL THEORIES :- focuses on


individual characteristics and occupational
tasks.
(a)

Trait Theory and factor theory (by Parsons)

Assumptions:- (1) that individuals and job traits


can be matched
(2) Close matches are positively correlated with
job success and satisfaction.

(b) Vocational Personalities and Environments


theory: (by John Holland)
People tend to choose a career that is reflective of their
personality. People find job satisfaction in
environments that are compatible with their
personalities.

(c) Socioeconomic theory (Chance or Accident theory)


This theory suggest that many people follow the path of
least resistance in their career development by simply
falling into whatever work opportunities happen to
come their way.

DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES:- focus on


human development across life span.
(a) Supers theory (Donald Super and other
Theorist):- recognize the changes that people
go through as they mature. Career patterns are
determined by socioeconomic factors, mental,
and physical abilities and the opportunities to
which person are exposed.

Krumboltz;s Social Learning Theory


This theory is based on social learning, or environmental
conditions and events, learning experiences. People
choose their careers based on what they have learned.
Decision Making theories :- there are critical points in
peoples lives when choices are made that greatly
influences their career development.
Cognitive theories:- are built around how individuals
process, integrate and react to information

Role of Human Resource Development Function in


Career Planning and Development of employees

Strategic Planner
Referral Agent
Appraiser
Advisor

Counselor

CAREER STRATEGY
It is the process of highlighting an organisations
greatest resources, its human resources, for
developing them for future career and business
opportunities within the organisation for
benefit of employees as well as organisation.

CAREER STRATEGY PROCESS


Discovering

Strategizing

Developing

Marketing
Networking to Market
Finding available position

Evaluating