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SUBSEA SYSTEMS FOR DEEPWATER

Neil Smith
Business Manager, Field Development
Mustang Engineering / J P Kenny

Deepwater Seminar, Perth, Australia 22 February 2005


Contents

• Systems integration – the key to success

• Deepwater design process

• Thermal management of subsea and pipeline systems

• Recent and current projects


Examples of J P Kenny’s Deepwater Projects

Asia Pacific Gulf of Mexico


•Kikeh – Murphy Oil Malaysia (1,300m) •Red Hawk, Gunnison and Boomvang – Kerr McGee (up to
2,000m)
•Stybarrow – BHPBilliton (800m)
•Seventeen Hands – Murphy Oil (1,700m)
•Scott Reef / Brecknock – Woodside Energy (500m)
•Durango, Navajo East, West – Kerr McGee ( 900m)
•Enfield – Woodside Energy (550m)
•Neptune – BHPBilliton/Marathon ( 1,890m)
•West Seno Pipelines – Unocal Indonesia (1,000m)
•Shenzi – BHPBilliton ( 1,310m)
•Malampaya Flowlines – Shell Philippines (850m)
•Llano – Shell(Enterprise) ( 793m)
•Laminaria/Corallina – Woodside Energy (400m)
•Marlin– BP ( 990m-1,585m)
•NaKika Export Pipelines – Shell (1,585m – 2,400m)
Africa/Middle East
•Magnolia Export Pipelines – Shell (1,341m)
•Angola Block 31NE – BP (2,000m) •Madison, Diana/Hoover – ExxonMobil ( 1,426m)
•Bonga – Shell (1,100m) •Mica – ExxonMobil ( 1,326m)
•Tiof Early Production System – Woodside (1,100m) •Aspen Subsea Development – BP (1,000m)
•Deepwater Gas Development - BP Egypt (800m) •Atlantis Project – BP (1,900m)
•Dalia - TotalFinaElf (1,500m) •Holstein Project – BP (1,200m)
•Shah Deniz– BP Caspian (650m) •Mad Dog – BP (1,800m)
Systems Integration – The Key to Success

Radial Piston
Monocoque Engine
Construction

Variable Pitch
Flaps Propellers
Retractable
Wheels
What Happened To The Boeing 247?
Systems Integration – Comparative Outcomes

Boeing 247 Douglas DC3


First Flight - 1933 1935

Component Technologies

Monocoque Construction o o
Radial Piston Engine o o
Variable Pitch Propellers o o
Retractable Wheels o o
Flaps > more engine power o
> economic viability

Number Made 76 10,655


Still Flying Today none >1,000
Why Is This Relevant to Deepwater?

“The clear and deliberate consensus of producers, service companies


and deepwater technologists is that 50 to 80 percent of the potential
reduction …….. lies in the business of integrating technologies
together rather than applying individual technologies themselves.”

Offshore Technology Roadmap for the Ultra Deepwater Gulf of Mexico, US DoE , Nov 2000

“Individual technologies are important, but it’s about how well you put
it all together holistically.”

Richard Sears, VP Shell Deepwater Services, SPE Deepwater Workshop, September 2003
The Subsea Design Process for Deepwater
Conventional Design Process

Well target
locations
Field layout
Functional Define
requirements Process and components
control
architecture
Procure
components
Steady
state
hydraulics Install
components

Transient
hydraulics Operate
system
Operating
procedures
Deepwater Design Process – Example 1

Well target
locations
Field layout

Functional Define
requirements Process and components Need more Different
control insulation installation
architecture spread
Procure
components
Steady
state
hydraulics Install
components

Transient
hydraulics Operate
system
Hydrates risk
in steady state Operating
operation procedures
Deepwater Design Process – Example 2

Well target
locations Increase
Field layout insulation

Functional Define
requirements Process and components
control
architecture
Procure Impact on
Revisit components installation
chemical Steady
distribution, state
add hot oil hydraulics Transient Install
circulation hydraulics components

Operating Operate
procedures system

Impractical
Pigging frequency
For wax removal
Thermal Management of Subsea Pipelines and Risers
Thermal Management

• JIP established by the Energy Institute in UK – steering


committee includes BP, ChevronTexaco, ConocoPhillips, Shell,
Statoil and TotalFinaElf.

• J P Kenny commissioned to prepare a Guideline for Thermal


Management of Subsea Pipelines and Risers (draft issued
March 2004)

• Quote from Guideline summary:

“Despite extensive and time-consuming full-scale testing prior


to installation, the thermal performance of some systems
installed to date has not met design expectations”
Recent Thermal Management Failures

Root Cause Consequence Outcome for Project


Incorrect weld design of pipe- Fatigue failure leading to Replacement of 30km of
in-pipe field joint rupture 16”/22” PiP flowline

Failure of novel gel insulation High convective heat transfer Significant reduction in thermal
in flowline bundle during in bundle annulus performance
operation

Seawater flooding of flexible Seawater ingress to foam Significant reduction in thermal


pipe carcass during operation insulation layer performance

Bottom-of-line corrosion failure Burst of bundle carrier pipe Loss of WI system functionality
of WI flowline in encased and bundle carrier integrity
bundle

“Cold spots” in subsea system Unacceptable reduction in Expensive remedial alterations


discovered after procurement system cooldown time to component design while
of affected components compared to design transient manufacturing in progress
analysis
Thermal Management

• Principal conflict is between a Flow Assurance preference to


maintain a high flowing temperature, and a Mechanical
Design preference to reduce it
• Mechanical design issues exacerbated by high operating
temperatures and thermal cycling include:
– Expansion forces and displacements
– Fatigue
– Corrosion
– Lateral/upheaval buckling
– Detailing of field joints, waterstops and bulkheads for pipe-in-pipe
and bundled systems
• An integrated cross-discipline approach is needed to achieve
a balanced design solution
Recent and Current Deepwater Subsea Projects
Client: Murphy Sabah Oil Co Ltd
Project: Kikeh Field Development
Location: Malaysia

• 400m+ bbl recoverable field in 1,300m


water depth
• New deepwater province – Sabah,
Malaysia
• J P Kenny/Mustang team performed
concept screening, pre-FEED and
FEED, encompassing FPSO, Dry Tree
Units and subsea wells and gas export
pipeline.
• Subsea scope: • Scope managed between Perth,
– Field architecture layout and cost KL and Houston offices
optimisation
– Detailed subsea cost estimates • Fast track schedule was achieved
– Definition engineering and specifications with less than one year between
for all subsea equipment
concepts evaluation and award of
– ITT preparation and bid evaluation for EPC
EPC contracts
contracts
Client: Shell Deepwater Services
Project: Bonga Field Development
Location: Nigeria

FPSO/subsea oil development in 1,100m


water depth.

Individual insulated pipe-in-pipe production


flowlines, steel catenary risers, polyethylene
lined pipes for water injection and bundled
flexible gas lift risers.

Subsea system scope included:


– Conceptual design of field architecture Achievements
– Conceptual review of flow assurance issues • Developed economic evaluation model
and development of hydrate mitigation
(FOCUS) integrating reservoir, drilling,
– Detailed estimates for subsea hardware
expenditure and field development schedule
completion and pipeline issues
– ITTs for Trees, Manifolds, Control Systems, • Attributed by Shell to have removed
Connection Systems, Flowlines and Risers months from development schedule due to
– Tender evaluation, contract negotiation and excellence of conceptual engineering and
management of pipeline and riser EPIC study management
contract
Client: Shell Deepwater Services
Project: Bonga Field Development
Location: Nigeria

• J P Kenny developed the FOCUS


service to deliver integrated layout
optimisation by linking GIS model to
economic model
• Rapid evaluation of options for field
architecture on NPV basis (well
deviations, number of drill centres,
flowline concepts)
• Optimisation of selected layout
• Major contributor to value optimisation
phase of project
Client: Samedan Oil Corp
Project: Lost Ark Subsea Development
Location: Gulf of Mexico

• 26-mile subsea tie-back to a host


platform on the shelf. Lost Ark
field located in East Breaks 421
and 464 in 825 m water depth.
• Single flowline scheme
engineered to minimise CAPEX
without compromising operability
• Complex flow assurance analysis
defined chemical injection Project management support
requirements enabled project to be completed
• J P Kenny was responsible for all within 12 month schedule
facets of the project, including
detail design, procurement,
installation coordination and
project services
Client: Kerr-McGee Oil and Gas Corp
Project: Gunnison Subsea Development
Location: Gulf of Mexico

• Durango/West Gunnison : 2-mile


subsea tie-back of two wells
• East Gunnison : 1-mile tie-back of
one well.
• Both utilise the Gunnison Spar as
the host platform.
• Located in Garden Banks 667 and
668 blocks in approx. 1,000 m
water depth. • As their subsea partner, we have
helped our client to achieve upper
• Subsea scope:
quartile performance in all their
– Verification of field architecture
conceptual design by performing flow developments
assurance simulations and system • Project savings achieved by efficient
engineering. procurement of key components
– Procurement and installation support
Client: BP Indonesia
Project: Terang Sirasun Batur Development
Location: North Bali Basin

• FPU/subsea gas field development located


in North Bali Basin – approximately 1 tcf
recoverable in four accumulations
• Integrated geohazards engineering
programme during project pre-FEED phase
led by J P Kenny
• Geophysical survey, hazards mapping and
engineering impact assessment performed
in parallel
• Quantitative risk analysis (facilities, wells
• Field layout and facility concept reconfigured to
and completions) improve risk / operability profile
• Innovative use of 3D visualisation technology
• Scope expanded to include FPU conceptual
design and transient flow assurance analysis
Client: BP Angola
Project: Block 31 NE Development
Location: Angola, West Africa

• Development of four adjacent oil reservoirs gas export


production
water injection
over 15 x 30km area in approximately Marte gas injection

2,000m water depth


• J P Kenny currently performing Pre-FEED Vénus

Study of SURF system Saturno

• Options under evaluation include Integrated,


Grouped and Phased development schemes
Plut ão
• Technical issues: 10 km

•Single vs looped production flowlines


•Flowline lateral buckling and “pipe walking” • Field layout being developed in GIS format to
enable later optimisation using J P Kenny
•Flowline materials vs topsides chemical injection FOCUS system
requirements
•Well deviation vs subsea layout
•Gas disposal
•Value assessment of pumping at riser base
SUBSEA SYSTEMS FOR DEEPWATER

Neil Smith
Business Manager, Field Development
Mustang Engineering / J P Kenny

Deepwater Seminar, Perth, Australia 22 February 2005