Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia. http://www.usm.

my

From Various Rubber Waste into Valuable Products: A Novel Recycling Approach
Professor Hanafi Ismail
School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia 14300 Nibong Tebal, PENANG Tel: 04-593788 Ext. 6113 ; Fax: 04-5941011 0404HP : 012-5704601 Email: hanafi@eng.usm.my 012-

INTRODUCTION
The world annual production of rubber in 2008 ± 22.7 million tonnes
NR ~9.94 million tonnes SR ~ 12.78 million tonnes

The world annual consumption of rubber in 2008 ± 22.2 million tonnes
NR ~9.55 million tonnes SR ~ 12.65 million tonnes

World Rubber Production and Consumption ('000 tonnes)
Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Production Consumption Natural Synthetic Total Natural Synthetic Total Rubber Rubber Rubber Rubber Rubber Rubber 6,634 9,880 16,514 6,570 9,870 16,440 6,577 10,390 16,967 6,650 10,280 16,930 6,762 10,870 17,632 7,340 10,830 18,170 7,332 10,483 17,815 7,333 10,253 17,586 7,337 10,882 18,219 7,628 10,692 18,320 8,033 11,390 19,423 8,033 11,371 19,404 8,756 12,019 20,775 8,715 11,839 20,554 8,892 12,151 21,043 9,082 11,895 20,977 9,846 12,646 22,419 9,216 12,371 21,587 9,725 13,583 23,489 9,735 13,197 22,932

Source: International Rubber Study Group (IRSG) Vol 52 No 1, October 1997 International Rubber Study Group (IRSG) Vol 56 No 12, September 2002 International Rubber Study Group (IRSG) Vol 62 No 6/Vol 62 No 7, May/June 2008

Malaysia's Rubber Consumption by Product Sector in 2007 (tonnes)

GRG - General rubber goods IRG - Industrial rubber goods

Malaysia's Output of Selected Rubber Products
Selected Rubber Products Year Tyres (pneumatic, all types, million units) 12.22 13.72 13.57 13.52 13.64 13.12 12.95 15.10 14.96 14.12 11.55 13.37 Inner tubes (all types, million units) 17.43 15.14 11.84 11.47 12.52 13.33 14.16 13.05 12.87 11.32 19.55 20.95 Gloves (all types, million pairs) 8,506.58 8,915.53 10,611.77 10,906.61 11,598.05 12,256.32 12,207.73 15,059.71 18,161.66 19,177.78 20,388.57 20,390.94 Catheters (all types, million units) 87.66 88.76 75.17 94.58 91.15 86.76 99.81 85.60 101.25 82.57 75.50 108.69 Footwear (million pairs) 16.95 12.83 8.09 8.28 6.29 4.17 3.30 2.67 3.37 2.95 3.89 5.41 Rubber bands (tonnes) 4,213 5,484 7,337 7,381 9,553 12,138 13,595 10,984 11,403 7,431 6,814 6,015 Rubber sheet (tonnes) 5,854 4,612 4,775 5,355 5,621 5,298 6,157 7,191 5,251 4,465 5,701 4,352

1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Source: Department of Statistics, Malaysia

The world total annual output of tyre in 2005 was 1.34 billion Main sources of waste rubber: discarded tyres, rubber pipes, belts, rubber shoes, edge scraps and waste products etc. rubber

Amount of discarded tyres reaches 10 million/year worldwide In Malaysia production of the pneumatic tyres alone in the year of 2000 is 13.64 Mil)while the tyre replacement market average is 1,257,00 (1.3 Mil) pcs per month. 35-40% go to tread market and 6570% for disposal dumping or other use (JPM, 2000)

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM
Scrap tyres piles create many problems such as breeding site for rats, snakes, termites and other vectors. Mosquitoes breed in stagnant water collected inside tyre piles, thus creating health threats, amongst others dengue fever and/or encephalitis. Tyre piles are also a health hazard because, if set afire either as a result of arson or by accident, they are difficult to extinguish and under uncontrolled conditions will release dangerous oils, heavy smoke and etc thus creating air, ground and water pollution. Burying on scrap tyres in landfill also creates problems. The tyres do not compact readily and will destabilize the landfill, making it costly and difficult to rehabilitate. Furthermore, little is known about the long term leaching effects of the organic component from buried tyres.

Kuala Lumpur NR prices 1st Oct 2007 ± 26th Feb 2009

THE STAR Monday, September 30 2002

The price of natural rubber increased from RM2,000 per tonne to RM3,400 four months ago.

THE STAR Wednesday, 24 November 2004
Latest STAR 12 Sept. 2006 SMR 20 RM6.49/kg. Last June 2006 RM8.52/kg

A NOVEL RECYCLING APPROACH 1 THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMERs (TPEs) FROM VARIOUS WASTE RUBBERS THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMER BASED ON: 1) POLYPROPYLENE (PP) /RECYCLED WASTE RUBBER POWDER (RRP) BLEND 2) POLYPROPYLENE (PP)/WASTE TYRE DUST (WTD) BLEND

Introduction  



Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) are a new class of thermoplastic of which the properties can be easily tailored more than block copolymer by simply changing the ratio of the rubber blend TPEs give better material utilization because scrap and rejects can be recycled Blending of recycle rubber into plastics such as rubber powder blend with polypropylene plays an important role in the modern polymer industry not only for development of new materials but also for practical recycling purposes

Introduction
Conventional Rubber Products
Purchase: Gum rubber Filler Extender Chemical

Mixing scrap

Shaping scrap

Vulcanization scrap

Finished Product

Thermoplastic Rubber Products

Purchase: Thermoplastic Rubber

Shaping

Finished Product

Recycle

Figure 1. Comparison of thermoset and thermoplastic processing

Objective of Study 1
Comparison of polypropylene (PP) /natural rubber (NR) and PP/recycle rubber powder (RRP) blends

Table 2.2. Formulation for PP/NR and PP/RR blends
Materials 1 Polypropylene (PP) (wt% ) Natural Rubber (NR) (wt% ) Recycle Rubber (RRP) (wt% ) * * 2 3 4 Blends 5 6 7 40 60 * * 8 * 9 10 11 * * *

100 80 70 60 50 20 30 40 50 * * * *

80 70 60 50 40 20 30 40 50 60

Table 2.5. Composition of RRP Composition Natural rubber Calcium carbonate Curative Others t% 47.6 38.1 13.2 1.1

Data from Watas Holding (M) Sdn. Bhd.

RRP is a waste product from the sanding process (polishing) Of rubber ball and artificial eggs. The range of particle size used in this study is 250 ± 500 µm.

Experiment procedure
PROCESS FLOW
(PP/NR/RRP BLEND)

TORQUE DEVELOPMENT

BRABENDER
T = 190 0C RS = 50 rpm

COMPRESSION MOLDING

Swelling Behaviour Oil Resistance Chemical Resistance TENSILE PROPERTIES

PP Preheated 6 min Mixing 2 min NR/ Blend 5 min RR Total 13 min

T = 190 0C Preheated 6 min Compressed 4 min Cooling 4 min (under pressure)

TENSILE FRACTURE SURFACE

Results and Discussion

1. Comparison Termoplastic Elastomer (TPEs) Properties between PP/NR and PP/RRP Blends

Brabender torque

50.00
P P 100

45.00
P P 80/ N R 20

40.00 35.00

P P 70/ N R 30 P P 60/ N R 40 P P 50/ N R 50

Torque (N m)

30.00 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 0.00 3.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00

P P 40/ N R 60

12.00

13.00

Time (min)

Figure 3.1. Torque development of PP/NR blends

Brabender torque

50.00 45.00 40.00 35.00
PP60/RRP40 PP100 PP80/RRP20 PP70/RRP30

Torque ( m)

30.00 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 0.00 3.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00

PP50/RRP50 PP40/RRP60

12.00

13.00

Time (Min)

Figure 3.2. Torque development of PP/RRP blends

Brabender torque

16.0 14.0 12.0
PP/NR BLENDS PP/RRP BLENDS

Torque (N m)

10.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Rubber content (wt% )

Figure 3.3. Stabilization Torque for PP/NR and PP/RRP blends

Tensile properties

45 40 35 PP/N Blends PP/ P Blends

ensile Strength (MPa)

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Rubber C

tent (wt %)

Figure 3.4. Tensile strength vs rubber content

Tensile properties
1400 1200 PP/RRP Blends PP/NR Blends

Young's Modulus (MPa)

1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Rubber Content (wt %)

Figure 3.5. Young¶s modulus vs rubber content

Tensile properties

120

PP/NR Blends
100

PP/RRP Blends

Elongation at Break (%)

80

60

40

20

0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Rubber Content (wt %)

Figure 3.6. Elongation at break vs rubber content

Oil resistance

70

PP/NR Blends
60

PP/RRP Blends
50

Swelling (wt%)

40

30

20

10

0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Rubber Content (wt %)

Figure 3.7. Relationship between % swelling and rubber content of PP/NR and PP/RRP blends in ASTM oil No. 3 at room temperature for 70 h.

Chemical resistance

2.20

PP/NR BLENDS
2.00

PP/RRP BLENDS
1.80

Swelling Index

1.60

1.40

1.20

1.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Rubber Content (wt%)

Figure 3.8. Relationship between swelling index and rubber content of PP/NR and PP/RRP blends in toluene at room temperature for 70 h.

Morphological Study

a) PP/NR

b) PP/RRP

Figure 3.9. Scanning electron micrograph of tensile fracture surface of PP/NR and PP/RRP 80/20 (wt./wt) at magnification 500X

Morphological Study

a) PP/NR

b. PP/RRP

Figure 3.10. Scanning electron micrograph of tensile fracture surface of PP/NR and PP/RRP 50/50 (wt.wt) at magnification of 500X

Morphological Study

a) PP/NR

b. PP/RRP

Figure 3.11. Scanning electron micrograph of tensile fracture surface of PP/NR and PP/RRP 40/60 (wt./wt) at magnification of 500X

Conclusion
Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) can be produced from recycle rubber powder and polypropylene. Their mechanical properties and swelling behaviour are better compare to thermoplastic elastomers based on natural rubber and polypropylene. This observation is supported by the SEM tensile fracture surface of the blends which show that PP/RRP blends need a higher energy to cause catastrophic failure than PP/NR blends. 

flat sheets as mats in car, flat roof membranes, cable insulation and durable flooring.

OBJECTIVE 2 THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMERs (TPEs) BASED ON POLYPROPYLENE AND WASTE TYRE DUST

EFFECTS OF LATEX ADDITION AND MECHANICAL MODIFICATION OF WASTE TIRE DUST (WTD) ON PROPERTIES OF POLYPROPYLENE-BASED POLYPROPYLENEBLENDS

Research Objective:
To investigate the effects of natural rubber latex addition and mechanical modification of waste tyre dust (WTD) on the tensile properties, swelling resistance, and morphology of polypropylene- waste tyre dust blends.

Experimental
Procedure:
Initially, the treatment involves mixing the WTD with sulphur at 50ºC and 1100 rpm for 8 min. Then, the natural rubber latex was gradually added and the stirring continued until the temperature increases to 80ºC. The mixture was continuously stirred for 7 min as to evaporate the water. Subsequently, the WTD was kept dry in an oven at 70ºC overnight. Finally, the WTD was mechanically modified by putting it between the nip of a laboratory mixing mill for 5 min to produce a modified WTD (WTDML).

1

Modification of WTD

2

Melt mixing

Blends compositions: 80/20, 70/30, 60/40, 50/50 and 40/60 (wt %). The blends were prepared in a Haake Rheomix at a temperature of 180 ºC and a rotor speed of 50 rpm. PP was initially melted for 2 min prior to the addition of WTD. The mixing was carried out for 7 min. The blends were preheated for 6 min and compressionmolded for 4 min at 180 ºC. The blends were subsequently cooled down under pressure for 2 min at ambient temperature.

3

Molding

Preparation of testing specimen

4

Dumbbell specimens of 2 mm thickness were cut from the sheets.

Characterization:
Tests were performed using an Instron 3366 tensile tester according to ASTM 412. The readings of tensile strength, elongation at break, Eb and Young¶s Modulus were recorded at the end of each test.

Tensile properties

Swelling Resistance

The test was conducted in accordance with ASTM D471. The specimens with dimensions 30 mm x 5 mm x 2 mm were immersed in ASTM Oil No. 3 and toluene at ambient temperature for 70 h and 46 h respectively. The swelling index was identified. The morphology of the PP/WTD blends¶ tensile fractured surfaces was observed using a Leica Cambridge S360 scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Morphological observation

Results
Tensile Properties:
9 T U T

A decre se in tensile strength nd mod l s is observed s T content incre ses d e to poor dist o T in T rich blends s comp red to in rich blends. ontrib te to poor tr ns er o stress s ell s e k resist nce to stress.

Tensile trength

9
¡

lend omposition o

T

t

Tensile strength vs. blend composition.
I PH GF DD IH GF E&DD E&
T U T

n be ssoci ted ith the size red ction o T d ring mech nic l modi ic tion sing t o-roll mill.
Q

Yo ng's od l s

eing non-pol r, the ddition o n t r l r bber l tex vors the orm tion o interph se region nd hence inter ci l dhesion.
lend omposition o T t 
 & " 7 6 54 # # & 3 00 21 )   "& ( ! $ & '  % &

lots o Yo ng¶s mod l s nd blend composition .

Q

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     §  § ¦ §¦  © ¦ §¦¨ ¦£§¦¡ ¤ ¥ ¦ §¦ 

% 

$  

#  

!  

¢¢

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T render signi ic nt improvement in tensile strength nd Yo ng¶s mod l s o blends.

Tensile Properties:
35

Eb(%)

PP/WT (UM)
V

30 25 20 15 10 5 80 20
S

PP/WT (ML)

Elongation at Brea

70 30
T

60 40
U

50 50

40 60

lend Composi i on of PP/WT (wt %)

The relationship between elongation at brea

Eb and blend compositions

R

V

All blend compositions with WT M exhibit superior Eb. Due to the mechanical modification provided a greater amount of WTDM surface area to interact with the PP matrix and hence increase the formation of interfacial region as a result of increased interactions with the existence of latex

R

R

R

R

Swelling resistance:

S

ing Index

S elling index v . blend c
Tol
1,80 1,70 elling Inde 1, 0 1,40 1,30 1, 1,10 80/ 0 70/30 Blend p
wv x ‰

PP/ PP/

( (

) )

1,60

60/40 iti n f PP/
† …„ƒ € € ‚€ €y

0/ 0

40/60

( t%)

Variati n

f

elling inde and blend c

p

iti n in t luene f r 46 h.

“

“

x x

c c ec dcb a`YX

B

p

iti n f PP/ T ( t )

p

iti n in IR

W W

80/20

70/30

i h g f

ut g

’‘ …„ƒ  ‘ …„ƒ

ts g

PP/ T (

)

PP/ T (

f

v

f

1,20 1,18 1,16 1,14 1,12 1,10 1,08 1,06 1,04 1,02 1,00

)

At the equilibriu tate, the degree f elling increa e a the c ntent increa e due t the increa e f ela t er c ntent in the blend .

ˆ

qr p ‡

60/40

0/ 0

40/60

903 il f r 70 h.
the blend ith inhibited il and che ical penetrati n better than th e ith ut. he e l er value f uptake indicate a re re tricted lecular ve ent f the atri by the increa e in cr -link den ity a ell a by the i pr ved interfacial adhe i n bet een the PP atri and .

Morphological Observation:

A small detached WTDML

PP/WTD (80/20)
Unmodified PP/WTD PP/WTDM

A BIG hole represents the detachment of unmodifoed WTD.

PP/WTD (40/60)

SEM micrographs of fracture surfaces

Conclusion
The modification of WTD seems effective in improving the overall tensile properties. properties. The swelling resistance of the blends with WTDM in both oil and toluene was much better indicating an improvement in interfacial adhesion between the PP matrix and WTDM rendered by the modification. A better dispersion of WTDM in the matrix and a reduction in the particle size of WTDM were observed in the SEM micrographs of tensile fracture surfaces.

OBJECTIVE 3 THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMERs (TPEs) BASED ON POLYPROPYLENE AND RECYCLED NBR GLOVES COMPATIBILIZING EFFECT OF DIGLYCIDYL ETHER OF BISPHENOLBISPHENOL-A EPOXY RESIN (DGEBA) ON PROPERTIES OF POLYPROPYLENE (PP)/ RECYCLED ACRYLONITRILE BUTADIENE RUBBER (rNBR) BLENDS

Research Objective:
To investigate the influence of epoxy resin as a compatibilizer on the properties of PP/rNBR blends

METHODOLOGY 1. Preparation of the blends
Melt mixing Haake Rheomix Polydrive R 600/610 mixer Temperature Rotor speed Mixing time 180oC 60 rpm 8 min. Compression molding Electrically heated hydraulic press Preheating at 180oC for 6 min Compressing at 180oC for 2 min Cooling under pressure for 2 min

Blending sequence PP ± 0 min rNBR ± 6th min EP ± 7th min

2. Characterization

1. Processing torque

2. Tensile properties (ASTM D 412) a. b. c. Tensile strength Young¶s modulus Elongation at break

3. FTIR analysis (SEM)

4. Swelling percentage (ASTM D 471)

5. Morphology (SEM)

RESULTS
1. Mixing torque

Torque development for PP/rNBR-EP blends with different blend ratio

2. Stabilization torque

Stabilization torque of PP/rNBR and PP/rNBR-EP blends at 8 min

3. Tensile strength

Tensile strength vs. blend composition of PP/rNBR and PP/rNBR-EP blends

4. Young¶s modulus

Young¶s modulus vs. blend composition of PP/rNBR and PP/rNBR-EP blends

5. Elongation at break

Elongation at break vs. blend composition of PP/rNBR and PP/rNBR-EP blends

6. FTIR analysis
PP/rNBR-EP 2331.75 PP/rNBR

Epoxy resin PP/rNBR-EP

1230.37

913.99

FTIR spectra of PP/rNBR and PP/rNBR-EP blends

FTIR spectra of PP/rNBR-EP and epoxy resin

The peak of the stretching vibration of CN group NBR is appeared around 2300 cm-1 in the spectrum of PP/rNBR The peaks appearing at around 1230 cm-1 and 913 cm-1 in the spectrum of epoxy resin are attributed to the epoxy group of epoxy resin The absence of these three peaks in the spectrum of PP/NBRr-EP blend might be due to the reaction of epoxy group with NBR

CH3 CH2-CH-CH2 [ O O C CH3 O CH2 CH-CH2 ] O n OH

CH3 C CH3 O CH2 CH-CH2 O

+
[ CH2-CH=CH-CH2-CH2-CH ] n CN

Melt mixing at 180oC

[ CH2-CH=CH-CH2-CH2-CH ] n CN CH2-CH-CH2 + O [O

CH3 C CH3 CH 3 [O C CH3 O O CH2 CH-CH2 ] O n OH CH-CH2 ] O n OH

CH3 C CH3 CH 3 C CH3 O O CH2 CH-CH2 O

CH2-CH-CH2 O

CH2

CH2

CH-CH2 O

Illustration of proposed reaction mechanism for epoxy resin with NBR

7. Swelling percentage (In ASTM oil no 3)

Swelling percentage vs blend composition of PP/rNBR and PP/rNBR-EP blends which immersed in ASTM oil No.3 for 70 hours.

8. Morphology

PP/rNBR: 80/20

PP/rNBR-EP: 80/20

PP/rNBR: 40/60

PP/rNBR-EP: 40/60

Scanning electron micrograph of tensile fractured surface of PP/rNBR and PP/rNBR-EP blends at different blend composition at magnification of 60x

CONCLUSIONS The stabilization torque decreases with addition of EP into the blends, indicating the better processibility Tensile properties and oil resistance of PP/rNBR-EP blends are superior to that of PP/rNBR blends The morphology results indicated that the addition of epoxy resin into the blends has reduced the interaction tension between PP and rNBR

PUBLICATION
1. H. Ismail and Suryadiansyah, Polymer Testing, 21 (2002) 389. 2. H. Ismail and Suryadiansyah, Polym. Plast. Technol. Eng., 41 (2002) 833. 3. H. Ismail and Suryadiansyah, Polym. Plast. Technol. Eng., 43 (2004) 319. 4. H. Ismail and Suryadiansyah, J. Ins. Mater. Malaysia, 3(1) (2002) 75. 5. H. Ismail and Suryadiansyah, Jurnal Teknologi, 39 (2003) 65. 6. H. Ismail and R. Nordin, Polym. Plast. Technol. Eng., 43 (2004) 285. 7. H. Ismail, R. Nordin and A.M. Noor, Polymer Testing, 21 (2002) 565. 8. H. Ismail and R. Nordin, Prog. In Rubber Recycling Technol., 20 (2004)105. 9. H. Ismail, R. Nordin and A.M. Noor, Polym. Plast. Technol. Eng., 41 (2002) 847. 10. H. Ismail, R. Nordin and A.M. Noor, Iranian polym. J., 12 (2003) 373. 11. H. Ismail, R. Nordin and A.M. Noor, J. Ins. Mater. Malaysia, 4(2) (2003) 113. 12. H. Ismail, M. Awang and M.A. Hazizan, Polym. Plastic. Technol. Eng., 45 (2006) 463. 13. M. Awang, H. Ismail and M.A. Hazizan, Polymer Testing, 26(2007) 779. 14. H. Ismail, D. Galpaya, Z. Ahmad, Polym. Plastic. Technol. Eng., 48 (2009) 440. Ismail, Testing, 36315. H. Ismail, D. Galpaya and Z. Ahmad, Polym. Testing, 28 (2009) 363-370 16. M. Awang and H. Ismail, Polymer Testing. 27(2008) 321-329 . Ismail, Testing. 321-

APPROACH 2: Invention of New Product

Product 1: Interlocking Rubber Tiles/Blocks From Recycle Rubber Wastes using a Novel Recycling Chemical Called DeCrossChem

Main Purpose of The Invention
1.

2.

3.

To recycle rubber wastes such as tyres, scrap gloves, catheters, motorbike tubes, etc. into interlocking rubber tiles/blocks which can be used as bound rubber tiles/mats or pavers under playground equipments, gymnasium weight rooms and aerobics halls or with a textured /corrugated surfaces to prevent slipping for walkways and ramps in airport, factories and office buildings. Help Malaysian government to solve the environmental problem of disposal various rubber wastes through the recycling of scraps into valuable products. To find the simplest and cheapest technology to recycle rubber wastes.

Conventional Process for recycling Rubber Wastes
1.

2.

3.

Mechanical Grinding ± Process which convert scrap rubbers into rubber crumb ( 4 steps: shredding --separating --- granulating --- classifying ). Cryogenic Grinding ± Shredded rubber wastes are frozen with liquid nitrogen ( - 196 0 C ) and then pulverized with a hammer mill. Pyrolysis ± Thermal distillation of rubber wastes into carbon black and pyrolytic oil at temperature 650 ± 900 0C in the absence of oxygen. oxygen.

Easiest Way«.
Direct Burning  LandFill  Artificial Reef, Decoration etc. 

New and Novel Process for Recycling Rubber Wastes « !!!!!!!

Special Feature and How It¶s Work (3 Steps)
Various Rubber Wastes i.e. tyres, tubes, catheters, gloves (Sulphur Crosslink) 1. Rubber processing Equipment Recycle Rubber (De-Crosslink of 2. DeCrossCHEM sulphur) (Room Temperature)

STEP 1 STEP 2
1. Rubber Processing Equipment (Room Temperature) 2. Add Curative Agents

STEP 3
Interlocking Rubber Tiles/Blocks
Compression Moulding at 150 oC

Recycle Rubber Compounds

SPECIAL FEATURE AND HOW IT¶S WORK
s s s s s sy sx
1. DeCrossCHEM 2. Mechanical Shearing (Rome Temperature)

s s s s s

sy +

De-Crosslink of the Sulphur Links

sx
DeCross Compound (Recycle Rubber)

Wastes Rubber (sulfur crosslink)
Add Curative Agent Heat at 150 0C

Blend with New Rubber

s s s

sy

s s

Add Curative Agent Heat at 150 0C

New Rubber Products

DeCrossPRO ± A Mechano-Chemical Process of Recycling Rubber Wastes

1

3

Recycling of Scrap Motorcycle Tube using DeCrossPRO
2 4

5

Recycling of Scrap Motorcycle Tube using DeCrossPRO (continue)

6

1

3

Recycling of Rejected catheter using DeCrossPRO
2 4

1

3 3

2

4 4

The Major Advantages of The Invention
1.

2.

3.

Using the conventional rubber processing equipments, all rubber wastes can be recycled and converted into interlocking rubber tiles/blocks with the help of a novel rubber recycling chemical, DeCrossCHEM. Only 5 gram of DeCrossChem is needed to recycle and converted 100 gram of rubber wastes into interlocking rubber tiles/blocks. Advantages of intelocking rubber tiles/blocks are:
Sound deadening Moisture proof Easy to install Cheap Interlocking durable impact absorption non-slip/antinon-slip/anti-fatigue multicolour adhesive are not required

Awards
Gold medal at International Invention, Innovation, Industrial Design & Technology Exhibition, 2003, Sunway Convention Center, 16 ±18 May 2003, Kuala Lumpur.  Silver medal at Expo Science & Technology (MOSTE), 2003, 7 ± 9 August 2003, Putra World Trade Center, Kuala Lumpur.  Silver medal at International Exhibition of Invention New Techniques and Products, 31 Mac-4 April 2004, MacGeneva, Switzerland. 

Product 2: OilZob ± A Novel and Reactive Oil Adsorbent From Various Rubber Wastes

Main Purpose of The Invention
1.

2.

3.

To recycle various rubber wastes such as tyres, scrap gloves, catheters, motorbike tubes, etc into A Novel and Reactive Rubber Oil Adsorbent. Adsorbent. Help Malaysian government to solve the environmental problem of disposal various rubber wastes through the recycling of scraps into valuable products. products. To find the simplest and cheapest wastes. technology to recycle rubber wastes.

THE MAJOR ADVANTAGES OF THE INVENTION
Using the conventional rubber processing equipments, simple manufacturing process and low cost, all rubber wastes can be recycled and converted into A Novel and Reactive Rubber Oil Adsorbent. OilZob ²The cost effective and contemporary way to deal with the clean-up and removal of oil spill on land and in water. Ideal for cleaning up oil spill in congested areas of warehouses and factories, petrol stations, car workshops, petrochemicals and shipping industries and all chronically spill prone areas.

The recovered oil can, in some cases be collected and recycled. OilZob plus adsorbed oil can also be landfilled or incinerated. OilZob can adsorb up to 5 times their own weight and will remain floating after saturation with oil. Manufactured in 2 different sizes and multicolour (a) Fine powder ± removal of oil in warehouses, garages, factories, kitchen, etc. (b) Rough powder ± in water (oil spill at sea)

HOW IT¶S WORK
Rubber powder oil adsorbent (OilZob)

Sea Water

Oil spill in the garages or factory Oil attach to OilZob

Hand net

Vacum cleaner

Sea Water

Garages/ factory floor free from oil

SIMPLE AND LOW COST MANUFACTURING PROCESS
COMPOUNDING
Rubber wastes + Special additives in [Two Roll Mill/ Internal Mixer] at Room Temperature

COMPRESSION MOULDING
Curing of Rubber Wastes Compound in [Hot Press] at 150 °C

PRODUCTION OF POWDERED RUBBER AS OIL ADSORBENT
Shearing of Cured Rubber Wastes Compound in [Two Roll Mill] at Room Temperature

OilZob-Oil adsorbent Rubber

OilZob-Oil adsorbent Rubber

ABTEK Oil-Absorbent Mats
ABTEK can produce custom-made oil-absorbent mats made from Reba oil-absorbent bark, jute and discarded wool. For example, oil-absorbent beach mats can be made according to customer specifications, so that in the event of an oil spill at sea, they can be placed at the water¶s edge to prevent oil from coming onto the beach. Industrial Products The following products have been developed for businesses such as petrol stations, car workshops and factories, as well as the petrochemical and shipping industries. - Made of 100% natural materials - Hydrophobic contents - Effective in retaining absorbed oil

AT2001 and AT2002: ABTEK quilted oil-absorbent mats

AT2011 and 2012: Oil-absorbent mats

AT2001 and AT2002: Abtek oil-absorbent mats have been thoroughly tested by the Esso oil refinery in Norway. The mats were used to build a dam around a 50 litre oil spill on concrete. Used together with Abtek bark, the mats absorbed the oil completely within 15 minutes.

Wonder Wool Oil Absorbent Mats and Pads
Wonder Wool is a perfect product for the age of big business and the growing desire to protect the earth from the damage. It is perhaps the only oil absorbent material that combines great durability and high adsorption capacity. It is made from low-grade domestic wool in a weight of approximately 14 ounces per square yard. It is reusable and, at the same time, recyclable.

This means, firstly, that Wonder Wool can be put into service to soak up oil around a machine or along oily factory walkways until it is saturated. Then, it can be collected, squeezed out using a laundry-style ringer designed for just this purpose, and redeployed up to 15 (fifteen) times until its effectiveness has been exhausted. And, then, it ³ain't dead yet.´ Why? Because, secondly, Wonder Wool can than be processed by a commercial industrial laundry able to clean oily fabrics to make it ready for re-manufacturing. The Mat King will arrange to "buyback" the laundered fibers (in quantities of 200 pounds or greater, free from metal filings) for re-manufacture into new Wonder Wool pads. 

100% Natural Organic Biodegradable Oil Absorbent from modified organic fibers. ‡ CRUNCH-OIL is a Natural Organic Hydrocarbon Absorbent, which will absorb all kinds of hydrocarbons. ‡ Its Organic Biodegradable Oil Absorbent fibers, will act on ground and on water with same absorption capacity, and will even biodegrade after a period of time. ‡ CRUNCH-OIL is an Encapsulating Oil Absorbent that will absorb much faster than most products in today¶s market, and as a non-leaching oil absorbent product, will eliminate all further contamination. ‡ The speed of absorption makes Crunch-Oil one of the very best Oil Absorbents available today. ‡ CRUNCH OIL absorbent fibers makes a difference with all Oil Spill absorbents products available, since been a natural organic oil absorbent, is environmentally friendly, and can be used on authorized landfills or can easily be incinerated. ‡ Crunch-Oil absorbent fibers are Non-Toxic if not used, and has unlimited shelf life if stored and kept dry. After oil absorption, use recommended procedures for product absorbed, and dispose as per local regulations.

Awards  

Gold medal at International Invention, Innovation, Industrial Design & Technology Exhibition, 2004, Mid Valley Exhibition Centre, 202022 May 2004, Kuala Lumpur. Gold medal at the International Trade Fair ³Ideas Inventions New Products (IENA 2005), 1-6 Nov. 12005, Nuremberg, Germany.

UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA

A NOVEL ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY AND DEGRADABLE OIL ABSORBENT FROM MIXED WASTE MATERIALS
INVENTOR:

Prof. Dr. Hanafi Ismail
School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia 14300 Nibong Tebal, PENANG Tel: 04-593788 Ext. 6113 ; Fax: 04-5941011 HP : 012-5704601 Email: hanafi@eng.usm.my

Powder Absorbent Production

UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA

Product 3: DEGRA TPE-A NOVEL TPEENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY AND DEGRADABLE POLYMER
INVENTOR:

Prof. Dr. Hanafi Ismail Sam Sung Ting
School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia 14300 Nibong Tebal, PENANG Tel: 04-593788 Ext. 6113 ; Fax: 04-5941011 HP : 012-5704601 Email: hanafi@eng.usm.my

INTRODUCTION
One of the main problems which mankind faces as it enters into the 21st century is the problem of waste 21st disposal management. management. Synthetic polymers, such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), etc are used in various application such as packaging, building and construction, electrical and electronics, transport, agriculture, etc. etc. Since polymeric materials do not decompose easily, disposal of waste polymers such as various plastics and rubbers is a serious environmental problem. problem. After a certain period these polymeric materials are not serviceable and discarded. These waste discarded. polymeric materials need very long time for natural degradation due to crosslink structure and the presence of various stabilizers and additives. additives.

The world¶s consumption of polymeric materials has increased from around 5 million tones in 1950s to 1950s nearly 100 million tones today. Malaysian citizen today. produced more than 15,000 tonnes of rubbish every 15, day and contains of 27% paper, 16.4 % plastic, 36.5 % 27% 16. 36. household wastes, metal 3.9 %, glass 3.7 % and others 12.5 %. 12. We produce and use 20 times more plastics today than we did 50 years ago. ago. Beside non-degradable of synthetic polymers, the shortage of landfill space, the depletion of petroleum resources, the increasing price of petroleum and concerns over emissions during incineration have spurred efforts to produce degradable polymers.

THE IMPORTANCE OF INVENTION (Problem Solving)
1.

To produce A Novel Environmental Friendly and Degradable Polymer using a cheap and breakthrough technology. technology. This invention is the first time ever where the waste plastic and rubber are used to produce Degradable Polymer . To solve the environmental problem caused by disposal of non-degradable petroleum-derived nonpetroleumpolymers

2.

3.

NOVELTY AND INVENTIVENESS
1. Degra TPE is degradable polymer and contain
15% waste plastic and rubber. rubber. 2. Degra TPE is ³ready to use´ polymer. ³ready use´ 3. Degra TPE shows rubbery properties but it can be processed using conventional plastic equipment such as injection moulding, blow moulding, extrusion, compression moulding, etc. 4. Degra TPE scrap can be recycled . 5. Degra TPE is very easy to color with many types of pigments. 6. Degra TPE is produced using Optimised Formulation and Optimised Processing Conditions. Conditions.

USEFULNESS AND APPLICATION
1. The cost effective and contemporary way to overcome the disposal of non-degradable petroleum derived polymers. 2. Less labour skill is needed . 3. Mechanical properties are comparable with commercial polymers . 4. Degra TPE can be used to manufacture any commercial polymer products. 5. The manufacturing cost is about 30% cheaper than commercial available polymers (lab scale) [RM5/Kg]

CHEAP AND BREAKTROUGH TECHNOLOGY Blends of LLDPE/Waste
Step 1 COMPOUNDING
(Twin Screw Compounder)
Plastic/Waste Rubber/Special Additives (accelerate degradation) Using Optimised Formulation and Optimised Processing Conditions

Step 2 EXTRUSION Step 3 PELLETIZING (Pelletizer)

PRODUCTION OF DEGRADABLE TPE (Ready to use)

Compounding Process
(Twin Screw Compounder)

EXTRUSION (Extruder)

DEGRA TPE

Degradation Study
14

Weathering Test

12

10

8

52% reduction
6

4

Tensile Stength (MPa)
Elongation at break (%

2

0

Before

After

600

500

400

300

200

100

97% reduction
0

Before

After

Morphological study
Before weathering After weathering ( after 3 months)

SOIL BURIAL TEST
10 8

27% reduction
6

4

2

200

100

0

Before

”

•

Tensile Stength (MPa)
longation at reak (%

0

Before

After

400

00

8% reduction

After

Morphological study
Before Soil Burial After Soil Burial ( after 3 months)

APPLICATION ± Products from DEGRA TPE

Grant 

USM Research University Grant with total amount of RM867,100.00

Award 

Gold medal at the 19th International Invention, Innovation, Industrial Design and Technology (ITEX 2008) Exhibition, at Kuala Lumpur Convention Center, 9-11 May 2008. 9Silver medal at the 37th International Exhibition of Inventions, New Techniques and Products , Geneva, Switzerland, 1-5th April 12009. 

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