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Seminar Presentation
On

Bio-Diesel Fuel
By:Subhash Banshiwal Guided By:T.S. Chauhan

Deptt. Of Mechanical Engg. M .A .I .E . T , Jaipur
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Different fuels for Automobile
     Fossil fuel Hydrogen fuel C. N. G. L. P. G. Bio-diesel

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PROBLEM WITH FOSSILE FUELS
LIMITED RESOURCES PRICE HIKE HIGH LEVEL OF ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION DEPENDENCE ON OTHER COUNTRIES

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What are Biofuels ?
 Renewable fuels from bio sources  Include
– Ethanol – Biogases – Bio-hydrogen – Vegetable oils (Associated Problems) – Bio-diesel (why?)

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BIODIESEL vs OTHER ALTERNATE FUELS
DIESEL CNG LNG METHANOL ETHANOL BIODIESEL

___________________________________________________________________________ Vehicle cost 10 5 5 5 5 10 Infrastructure 10 2 5 5 5 10 Safety 7 4 3 1 3 8 Operating range 10 5 10 10 10 10 Operating cost 10 5 7 5 5 7 Reliability 10 7 5 3 3 10 Customer acceptance 5 8 8 8 9 8 Funding assistance 1 10 2 0 2 2 Training cost 10 5 5 5 5 10 Fuel availability 10 10 5 5 5 6 Fuel quality 9 5 10 8 8 9 Fuel price stability 6 8 8 6 6 6 TOTAL 98 74 73 MNIT 61 66 96 __ 5
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Environmental Concerns
Emissions by combustion engine (100B)

Emission CO HC PM SOOT PAH CO2 NOX S

Reduction (%) 67 30 68 50 85 100 +/-2--6 80-100
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Definition of “Biodiesel”

 Biodiesel – a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats.

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Alternative fuel for diesel engines Made from vegetable oil or animal fat Lower emissions, High flash point (>300F), Safer Biodegradable, Essentially non-toxic. Chemically, biodiesel molecules are mono-alkyl esters produced usually from triglyceride esters  Renewable source of energy      FA FA FA
Vegetable Oil
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What is Biodiesel?

Fatty Acid Alcohol Glycerin

FA
Biodiesel

PETRO-DIESEL CO2 CYCLE
13 pounds of fossil CO2 released per gallon burned

Fossil CO2 Release to Atmosphere

Refining

Use in Cars and Trucks Exploration

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BIODIESEL CO2 CYCLE
No fossil CO2 Released ; No global warming

Renewable CO2

Oil Crops

Use in Cars and Trucks

Biodiesel Production MNIT

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Biodiesel Production Processes
 Dilution  Pyrolysis  Micro-emulsion  Transesterification

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Transesterification
O || CH2 - O - C - R1 | | O | || CH - O - C - R2 + 3 CH3OH | | O | || CH2 - O - C - R3 Triglyceride methanol O || CH3 - O - C - R1 O || CH3 - O - C - R2 O || CH3 - O - C - R3 mixture of fatty esters
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<=>
(KOH)

+

CH2 - OH | CH - OH | CH2 - OH

glycerin
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(Excess)

Biodiesel production process

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Standard Recipe
100 lb oil + 21.71 lb methanol  → 100.45 lb biodiesel + 10.40 lb glycerol + 10.86 lb XS methanol Plus 1 lb of NaOH catalyst
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Triglyceride Sources
    Rendered animal fats: beef tallow, lard Vegetable oils: soybean, canola, palm, etc. Chicken fat Recovered materials: brown grease, soapstock, etc.

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Biodiesel Production
1,000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 2001 2003 2005 2007 Soybeans 2009 2011 2013 2015 Other Oils

Mil gal

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BIODIESEL SPECIFICATIONS
PROPERTIES Density Ash Content Total Sulfur Cetane No. Flash Point Copper Corrosion Viscosity, 40 0C Neutralization Value Free Glycerin Total Glycerin UNIT g/cm3 % mass % mass -0

SAE(2003) 0.875-0.90 Max 0.02 Max 0.01 Min 49 Min 110 1 3.5-5.0 Max 0.5 Max 0.02 Max 0.25

ASTM (2004) -Max 0.020 Max 0.05 Min 40 Min 100 No. 3b max 1.9-6.0 Max 0.8 Max 0.02 Max 0.24

C

degree mm2/s (cSt) mg % mass % mass

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Biodiesel Blends
Biodiesel B100 B20 B10 B5 B2 0 50 100 Petroleum diesel

B100 = 100% biodiesel B20 = 20% biodiesel + 80%
petroleum diesel B10 = 10% biodiesel + 90% petroleum diesel

B5 = 5% biodiesel + 95%
petroleum diesel petroleum diesel

B2 = 2% biodiesel + 98%

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A Common Accepted Blending Method
1. Diesel fuel is picked up at supplier loading rack and driven to B100 supplier. 2. The warm/hot B100 is added to the diesel fuel 3. Blending occurs during transportation to the customer.

3

Customer

1
Diesel Fuel Supplier

2
MNIT Biodiesel (B100) Supplier 19

Key Advantages of Biodiesel Fuel (B100)

Made from waste products

 Use with standard, existing equipment  Reduces CO2 emissions by more than 75%  Can be used in conventional diesel engines  Fewer particulate emissions of CO and sulfur dioxide  Potentially safer to transport and store: flash point of (150 C-typical vs. 77 C-typical for petroleum diesel)
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Why is Biodiesel better?
       Renewable Clean burning High Lubricity Fuel Efficiency – (high cetan no.) Reduces need to import oil Biodegradable Safe: non-toxic, non-hazardous, nonflammable (high flash point)
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Emissions Reductions
B20 emissions reductions compared to petroleum diesel:

– Carbon monoxide -20%

– Unburned hydrocarbons -30% – Particulate matter -22% – Sulphates -20% – NPAH -50%
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BIODIESEL-Why Lower Emissions ?
      Biodiesel has high cetane In built Oxygen content Burns fully Has no Sulphur No Aromatics Complete CO2 cycle

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BIODIESEL AND ECONOMY
 An increase of $1 per barrel of crude oil prices adds $425 million to our oil import bill  Oil import constitutes a major part of our trade deficit and has an enormous impact on our economy and creation of new jobs  The US dept of Energy estimates that each $billion of trade deficit costs the US 27,000 jobs  Developing a strong market for biodiesel would have tremendous economic benefits

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THE INDIAN SCENE
 Annual growth rate ~6% compared to world average of 2%  Oil pool deficit & Subsidies Rs 16,000 crores , Rs 18,440 crores (2003-04)  Current per capita usage of petroleum is absymmaly low (0.1 ton/year) against 4.0 in Germany or 1.5 tons in Malaysia  Our domestic production would meet only 33% of demand at the end of 10th plan and only 27% by 2010-11  INVESTMENT IN BIOFUELS MAKE STRONG ECONOMIC SENSE

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INDIAN INITIATIVE ON BIODIESEL
 Indian Govt. has taken a serious note of Biodiesel

 Planning Commission has set up committees on: Product development  Engine studies  Legal regulations  Plantations  Specifications  Marketing  Environmental issues

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Present Limitations of Biodiesel
Χ

Warranties with engine manufacturers Increase in NOx emissions relative to petroleum diesel fuels Limited capacity at present (limited quantities available) Cold weather concerns Limited approved distribution access ( none in New England / one in S. East)

Χ Χ Χ Χ

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CONCLUSION
 Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that can be made from virtually any oil or fat feedstock.  The technology choice is a function of desired capacity, feedstock type and quality, alcohol recovery, and catalyst recovery.  Maintaining product quality is essential for the growth of the biodiesel industry.

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