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Physiology of Bacterial

Dra. Sitti Zuleiha

The aspects are :

The growth of bacteria


of bacteria

In bacterial growth to occur, the

organism must be provided with all of
the substances essential for the
synthesis and maintenance of its
protoplasma, a source of energy, and
suitable environmental condition.
The bacteria is omnivora organism.


- Water :
Bacteria need water in high
concentration to grow up and
for circulation in cells.

- Anorganic material :
Stabilized coloid and osmotic
Stabilized balance alkali acid
activator enzym reaction

- Mineral :

some autotropic bacteria

oxidized it to sulfat ( SO4). Some
microorganism can assimilate H2S
directly from the growth medium.
But these compount can be toxic to
many organism.


Source :
Phosphate (PO4) is required as a
component of ATP, nucleic acids, and
such coenzymes as NAD, NADP and


enzym : Mg. Fe, K , Ca

Nitrogen Source :
Sources of Nitrogen in microbial
nutritions : NO3, NO2, N2, NH4, RNH2 (organic radical).
Carbon Source :
Some bacteria are able to
photosynthetic energy to reduce

Based on Carbon source the bacteria

divided into :
1. Autotrophs.
Organism that use only an
inorganic substrate such as
Hydrogen or thiosulfate as a
reductant and carbon dioxide as a
carbon source.

2. Heterotrophs
- Photosyntetic heterotrophs bacteria
require light energy.
- Chemosyntetic heterotrophs
bacteria : require organic carbon for
growth, and the organic carbon must be
in a form that can be assimilated.

Based on O2 bacteria divided 5

groups :
Obligate anaerob bacteria
Aerotolerans anaerob bacteria
Facultative anaerob bacteria
Obligate aerob bacteria
Microaerophilic bacteria

Based on temperature, bacteria

divided into :
: -5 (+30)C
opt : 10-20 C
: 10-45C,
opt. 20-40C
: 25-80 C,
opt. 50-60 C

The patogenic bacteria in human

usually grow up very well in 37 C.
The growth of bacteria has influence
by pH. Almost patogenic bacteria
have optimum pH : 7,2 7,6

Reproduction of bacteria
Occurred : - Asexual
Asexual : 1. Cell division
2. Formation of bud /
3. Formation of filament

1. Cell division
Commonly, growth of bacteria
with amytosis to be binary division.
Generation Time is the time
between two division 20 minutes
15 hours.
GT: M.tuberculosa 15 hours.

2. Formation budding / branch

The bacteria form bud pull of
new bacteria.
Example :
Family Streptomycetaceae

3. Formation Filament
The cell was out long filament,
this filament dont have branch. After
that the chromosom was in to
filament filament cut off some
divisions. One division formed the
new bacteria. The situation find in
Exp : Haemophylus influenza

Sexual :
The union of two chromosom
new cell bacteria, genetic same
mothers chromosome
That situation find the same
bacteria in one family.
Exp : Enterobacteriaceae :
E. coli with Shigella dysenteriae
E. coli with Salmonella thyposa

The growth cycle of bacteria has

four major phases :
1. Lag phase

Metabolic activity (+),

growth rate
This can last for a few minutes up
to many hours.

2. Logarhytmik phase
This phase has been during 18-24
Growth of bacteria very ideal and

3. Stationary phase.
There is a slow loss of cells through
death, which is just balance by the
formation of new cells through
growth and division.

4. Decline phase
The majority of cells have died,
the death rate decreases drastically,
so that a small number of survivors
may persist for months or even year.
Negative growth.

Variability :
Cohn & Koch : Success to get the pure
culture of bacteria and said the bacteria
always have the same form ( teory
Bacterial can be changed form and
physiology depend on the environment.

There is a modification form

monomorfisme bacteria doesnt
change from coccus bacilli or
mutation from genus to the other
genus but the spesies can be
changed in biology activity
antigenitas and virulens.

Mutation is gen relation-change,

constantly and hereditary.
Fluktuation : temporary change in
phisiology and morfology which is
coused by environment.
: temporary pigmented
bacteria, can lose the ability to form

Involution :
A change with bacterial retardation,
usually find the old bacteria.
The patogenicity of the bacteria could be
adapted, according to the difference
Decreasing pathogenicity will be recovery
when they are cultured to the animal