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Periodic Trends

A trend is a predictable change in a


particular direction.
Understanding a trend among the
elements enables you to make
predictions about the chemical
behavior of the elements.

1. Ionization Energy
When atoms have equal numbers of protons
and electrons, they are electrically neutral
When enough energy is added, the attractive
forces between protons and electrons can be
overcome
When this happens, the neutral atoms
becomes a charged ion
Ionization Energy: the energy required to
remove an electron from an atom or ion.

1. Ionization Energy
Ionization energy decreases down a group.
As you move down a group, there are
increasingly more occupied energy levels
occupied.
Electron Shielding: the reduction of the
attractive force between a positively charged
nucleus and its outermost electrons due to the
cancellation of some of the positive charge by
the negative charged of the inner electrons.

1. Ionization Energy
Ionization energy increases as you move from left to
right across a period
As we move across the period, e do not add any
additional layers or energy levels to our atoms
Each element has 1 additional proton and electron.
As you add a proton you increase the strength of the
nucleus to hold the electrons in its orbital (increase
effective nuclear charge)
This makes it harder to remove an electron so it
therefore requires more ionization energy

Ionization Energies for Carbon


40000
35000
30000
25000
Energy kJ/mol 20000
15000
10000
5000
0

1st

2nd

3rd

Ionization

4th

5th

2. Atomic Radius
Calculating the exact size of an
atoms radius can be difficult. One
method we can use involves
calculating the bond radius.
Bond Radius: the length that is half
the distance between the nuclei of
two bonded atoms.

2. Atomic Radius
Atomic radius increases as you more down
a group
As you move down a group, another
principal energy level is filled.
The addition of another level of electrons
increases the size, or atomic radius, of an
atom.
There also some electron shielding that
occurs, which means the outer electrons
are not held as tightly to the nucleus

2. Atomic Radius
Atomic radius decreases as you move across a
period
As you move across a period, additional
electrons and protons are added
The electrons are added to the same energy
level.
As the nuclear charge increases, the effective
nuclear change on the electrons also increases
This means that electrons are pulled closer to
the nucleus.

3. Electronegativity
Electronegativity: A measure of the
ability of an atom in a chemical
compound to attract electrons
Linus Pauling developed a scale
called the Pauling Scale with
numerical values that reflect how
much an atom in a molecule attracts
electrons

3. Electronegativity
Electronegativity decreases down a
group
The more protons an atom has, the
more strongly it should attract an
electron
However, due to electron shielding,
electrons are held less closely.
E.g. Cesium vs. Lithium

3. Electronegativity
Electronegativity increases as you
move across a period
As you move across a period, each
atom has one more proton and one
more electron in the same energy
level.
The effective nuclear charge
increases across period and electrons
are attracted more strongly.

4. Electron Affinity
Electron Affinity ________ down a
group
The more protons an atom has, the
more strongly it should attract an
electron
However, due to electron shielding,
electrons are held less closely.

4. Electron Affinity
Electronegativity ________ as you
move across a period
As you move across a period, each
atom has one more proton and one
more electron in the same energy
level.
The effective nuclear charge
increases across period and electrons
are attracted more strongly.

Property

Trends
Down a
Group

Explanation

Trends
Across
a Period

Electron shielding
from effective nuclear
charge causes the
Ionizatio
Decrease outermost e- to be
Increase
n Energy
held less tightly,
making them easier to
remove.

Atomic
Radius

Increase

Explanation

Increased effective
nuclear charge
pulls outermost emore closely,
making them
harder to remove.

Electron shielding,
Increased effective
which allows e- to held
nuclear charge
less closely to nucleus.
pulls outermost eDecrease
Another energy level
more closely,
is filled, increasing the
decreasing the
size of the e- cloud.
size of the atom.

Electron shielding
from effective nuclear
Electrocharge means nucleus
negativit Decrease
is less able to attract
y
e- as it is weaker in
strength.

Increase

Increased effective
nuclear charge
pulls e- closer to
nucleus and
increases ability to
attract e- to atom.

Property

Electron
Affinity

Ionic
Radius

Trends
Down a
Group

Explanation

Trends
Across
a Period

1. Slight increase in
Not
effective nuclear
regular.
charge down a
Generall
Generally
group (increases
y
decrease
EA)
increase
.
2. Increase in atomic
radii (decreases EA)

Increase

Explanation
Increased effective
nuclear charge
causes a greater
release of energy
(higher EA).
Note exceptions of
Group 15.

Cationic and
Anionic radii
Electron shielding,
because increased
which allows e- to held
effective nuclear
less closely to nucleus.
Decrease charge pulls
Another energy level
outermost e- more
is filled, increasing the
closely, decreasing
size of the e- cloud.
the size of the
atom.

Other Periodic Trends Ionic


Size
Ionic size increases as you move
down a group as the outermost
electrons in ions are in higher energy
levels.

Other Periodic Trends Ionic


Size
Metals tend to lose electrons to form
positive ions
As you move across a period, the
ionic radii decreases
This is due to the increasing nuclear
charge