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TRAINING

What is Personal
Development?

Personal development is self improvement.


It is the aspiration to realise self higher.

Self-Transcendence.
Self-Transcendence is the art of going beyond

our own self-imposed limitations.


This means we aspire to reach new goals and
not to be satisfied with what we were in the
past.

Transcending our
We all have negative
Negative
Qualities.
qualities such as pride,

anger and doubt.


Personal development is a conscious effort to
reduce and minimise these qualities by
focusing on the positive aspects of life.

Training?
*Training and development is increasingly
recognized as a most important organizational
activity.
*Training has to be continuously offered to
keep employees updated.

TRAINING DEFINED
It is a learning process that involves the acquisition
of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules,
or changing of attitudes and behaviours to
enhance the performance of employees.
Training is activity leading to skilled behavior.
Its not what you want in life, but its knowing how to reach it
Its not where you want to go, but its knowing how to get there
Its not how high you want to rise, but its knowing how to take off
It may not be quite the outcome you were aiming for, but it will be an
outcome
Its not what you dream of doing, but its having the knowledge to do it
It's not a set of goals, but its more like a vision

Division Of Training
Function:
Training objectives can be divided into five
segments.
Training Objectives.
Identification of training needs.
Training needs.
Training methods.
Administration of training programmes, and

training evaluation.

Objectives Of Training
Establish a match between employee and

his/her job.
Designed to improve knowledge,skills,and
attitude and thus equip the individual to be
more effective in his present job.
Objectives of training differ according to the
employees belonging to the different levels of
organization.

INDUCTION
Training constitutes a significant step in the induction

of the individual into the companys way of life.

Organization has to provide induction training to all

employees entering the organization to help them


settle down all the below questions:

What the companys culture?


How does structure function?
What are role relationships?
What are policies and rules of organizations?
What are degrees of freedom,or limits of
behaviour?

Updating
Significant objective of training is to prevent the

obsolescence of the employees by updating their skills and


knowledge.

Jobs that employees are doing are not static.


(For eg: Introduction of computers has changed jobs

substantially.)

Training becomes necessary to update to reach newer skills

so that the efficiency does not suffer because of lack of


understanding of the new technology.

Continuous training would help the employees to cope with

changes and retain organizational viability as well.

An Organizations effectiveness depends on


its ability to achieve its goals, to maintain
itself internally, and to adapt to its
environment.
- Argyris
(1971)

THREE COMPONENTS
ORGANISATIONAL ANALYSIS
TASK ANALYSIS
MAN ANALYSIS

ORGANISATIONAL
ANALYSIS
It involves a comprehensive
analysis of organizational structure,
objectives, culture, process of
decision making, future objectives,
and so on.

REQUIREMENTS
Do we have adequate number of

people to fulfill organizational


objectives?
Do these people posses required
skills and knowledge?
Is the organizational environment
conducive to facilitate activities that
would help achieve its goals.

TASK ANALYSIS
This indicates whether tasks
have changed over period of time and
whether employees have adequate skill
in performing these tasks.

MAN ANALYSIS
The focus is on individual,
his skills, abilities, knowledge, and
attitude.

ADDITIONAL METHODS
ANALYSIS OF EQUIPMENT
BRAINSTORMING
PROBLEM CLINIC
SIMULATION

ANALYSIS OF
EQUIPMENT
Change in equipment or
modification of existing machines and
equipment calls for new skills and
abilities.

BRAINSTORMING
The technique consists of
involving professionals with different
backgrounds, assigning them a task and
fixing a time limit. At the end of the
time limit, the ideas generated are
closely scrutinised to see what kind
training would help.

PROBLEM CLINIC
In this case a homogeneous group
meets informally to discuss a common
problem and develop a solution.

SIMULATION
Some structured exercises are
developed and individual or teams are
asked to compete with each other on
these exercises. Performance on these
games highlights areas where training
may be useful.

Training administration refers to converting


training needs into contents, types of training
programmes, location of training programmes,
choice of faculty and participants and general
administration. These issues deal with the
design and development of training
programmes.

Training Contents
Contents of training are very much

influenced by the purpose and need for


training.
Contents vary according to the level of

participants in a training programme.


Sequencing of contents and pace of

training.

Training Programme
Standard training programme induction training,
supervisory training, technical training and
management development training programme.
1.

Induction training- Wherein a new employee is


introduced to the organisation, condition of
services, rules of behaviour, etc.

2.

Supervisory training Supervisors are trained


for technical skills, leadership qualities, for
handling machines and men.

3.

Technical training it helps in introducing new


employees to the organisation and in improving
the skills of existing employees for promotions.

4.

Management development This type of


training is for managers. These training
programmes emphasise attitude and values,
conceptual knowledge, analytical abilities and
decision-making skills.

Implementation of Training
Programme
Choice of participants
Choice of training programme external

programme or in-company programme.

External programme
Availability of programme
Number of people to be trained
Duration of which they could be taken off the job
Timing of training programmes
Cost of training programme

Problems in the Implementation of


training programmes
Problems of faculty
The nature of physical facilities and

general comfort of the participants


Size of the class
Ventilation and lighting arrangements
Seating arrangement
Punctuality

Training Evaluation
Evaluation of training effectiveness to assess the
quality of training and to see what future changes
in training plan should be made to make it more
effective.

Immediate Evaluation
It refers to reaction of the participants as to how
they have found a particular training programme.
It seeks information on contents, reading
materials, presentation, trainers mannerisms and
relationship with other participants.

Utility Analysis
Utility is a function of the duration of a training
programmes effect on employees, the number of
employees trained, the validity of the training
programme, the value of the job for which the
training was provided and the total cost of the
programme.

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