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SYSTEMS

FACULTY GUIDE

SUBMITTED BY

AR. PAWAN TIWARI

ASHISH DHALOCH
12620

Aim
To study the need and uses of multi- modal
transportation and the circulation involved in it.

Objective
s
To study and understand multimodal transport and its
types
To study various successful examples of multimodal
transport systems
To study and recommend appropriate multimodal
transport for Indian cities.

Multimodal Transport: Conceptual Framework


There are several definitions for Multimodal Transport given by academics
and practitioners over the years.
Among them, one of simplest definitions in terms of conceptual clarity is
that given by Schoemaker et al. (1999) wherein,
Transportation takes Multimodal form when two or more different modes
are used for a single trip between which the traveller has to make a
transfer.
The key aspects of this definition are, first, there are more than one mode
of transport, and second, there is transfer between different modes of
transport during a trip.

UNIMODAL
TRANSPORT

Therefore, a kid who


walks to the bus stop,
takes a bus to school
and returns home by
tram follows a multi
modal form of
transport, whereas a
parent who drives
back and forth to
office in her car
follows a unimodal
form of transport, as
shown in figure.

MULTIMODAL
TRANSPORT

TERMINOLOGY
Waiting :-This is defined as the
duration between the a users
arrival to a transport terminal and
the actual entry into the vehicle of
the mode in question.
In-vehicle travel :- This is the
duration of time on the vehicle.
Transfer :- This is defined as the
duration between one getting out of
the previous mode and arriving at
the entrance point of the following
mode.
Means of Transport :- The vehicle used for transport, e.g. train, car, bus or
aircraft.

Multi-modal transportation
planning is complicated because
modes differ in various ways,
including their availability, speed,
density, costs, limitations, and most
appropriate uses. They are not
perfect substitutes; each is most
appropriate for specific users and
uses.

Public transit (also called public


transportation or mass transit)
includes various types of services
and vehicles. The performance of
various types of public transit has
been summarised in the table.

TRANSPORT PLANNING
PROCESS
A transport planning process typically includes the
following steps:
Monitor existing conditions.
Forecast future population and employment
growth, and identify major growth corridors.
Identify current and projected future transport
problems and needs, and various projects and
strategies to address those needs.
Evaluate and prioritize potential improvement
projects and strategies.
Develop long-range plans and short-range
programs identifying specific capital projects and
operational strategies.
Develop a financial plan for implementing the
selected projects and strategies.

EXAMPLES OF SUCCESSFUL MULTIMODAL


TRANSPORT SYSTEMS
1). London
Londons overall public transport network is
characterised by a well-established rail
network complemented by an extensive
bus network and a ferry network.
These networks are integrated by multimodal stations designed for ease of
interchange for high volumes of
passengers.
At major stations, bus interchanges have
been developed to be within walking
distance of the railway and underground
stations, often manned by bus station staff
and furbished with real time information

UNDERGROUND RAILWAY
STATION

FEEDER DOUBLE DECKER

EXAMPLES OF SUCCESSFUL MULTIMODAL


TRANSPORT SYSTEMS
2). Singapore

Singapore is considered an international leader in


integrated multi-modal transport planning.
The Mass Rapid Transit or MRT is a rapid transit system
that forms the backbone of the railway system in
Singapore, spanning the entire city-state.
The operators of the MRT also run bus and taxi services
to and fro from the 79 stations thus ensuring that there
is a full integration of public transport services.
The MRT is complemented by the regional Light Rail
Transit (LRT) systems that link MRT stations with public
housing estates.

FEEDER
BUSES

SINGAPORE MRTS

EXAMPLES OF SUCCESSFUL MULTIMODAL


TRANSPORT
SYSTEMS
3). Hong Kong
The city claims one of the world's safest,
most efficient and frequent public
transport systems.

Hong Kong public transport services


include railways, trams, buses, minibuses,
taxis and ferries. This results in very high
public transit mode share (90%) and very
low vehicle ownership rates (50 vehicles
per 1000 population). Hong Kong
transport services are provided by several
operators.

TheOctopus card, a
smartelectronic
moneypayment system, was
introduced in September 1997
to provide an alternative to the
traditionalbanknotesandcoins
.
Available for purchase in every
station of theMass Transit
Railwaysystem, the Octopus
card is a non-touch payment
system which allows payment
not only for public transport
(such as trains, buses, trams,
ferries and minibuses), but also

Bus Rapid Transit Systems


Bus Rapid Transit Systems(BRTS) have emerged as one of the
primary
modes of public transport. They are comparatively flexible, easily
accessible and
efficient and also cost effective in terms of being able to transport
a large number of people rather than vehicles.
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is a high-quality bus-based transit system
that delivers fast, comfortable, and cost-effective services at
metro-level capacities. It does this through the provision of
dedicated lanes, with busways and iconic stations typically aligned
to the center of the road, off-board fare collection, and fast and
frequent operations.
Because BRT contains features similar to a light rail or metro
system, it is much more reliable, convenient and faster than

The working definition of a BRTS is:

BRTS is an affordable rubber tire based


public transport system which uses
dedicated lanes and additional context
specific features to provide higher
capacity, speed, safety, comfort and
reliability of transit than any other mode
operating in mixed traffic condition.

Metro Rail Transit Systems


Metro rails are rail-based, mass rapid transit systems that operate on
an exclusive right-of-way, which is separated from all modes of
transport in an urban area.
Most often, the right-of-way is either underground or elevated above
street level. These systems generally operate at an average speed of
2035 km/h, and are characterized by their high capacity (50,000
75,000 passengers per hour, per direction) and high frequency of
operation.
The capital cost of
construction is between
2030 times that of the
Bus Rapid Transit
system, depending on
whether the metro
systems are
underground or

The Advantages
A cheap mode of transport, the MRTS helps in low energy consumption,
is eco-friendly (runs on electricity, thus minimising air and sound
pollution), averts the number of accidents, is efficient in terms of space
occupancy and provides comfort with ultra modern coaches and
modern systems like automatic ticketing, advanced signalling systems,
automatic train protection system and integrated security systems.
Also such stations lead to nearby economic development.

There are currently 8 operational metro systems in India which include


Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Bangalore, Gurgaon, Chennai, Hyderabad and
Jaipur.

Metro and Bus Integration in Multi Modal


Perspective in India

In Indian perspective, integration of metro and bus is a


better option to get integrated mass multi modal
transit in million plus cities.
Mass Transit is mainly road based in majorities of
Indian cities except Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata
where sub urban trains
play important role.
Generally, roads and railways are two dominant
modes of transport in million plus cities and hence
their integration has great impacts on urban mobility.
In this context, various infrastructure developments
are required for integration of particularly metro and
bus to provide efficient transport.

PROVISION FOR COMMUTER


FACILITIES
The integration of metro and bus requires
the following facilities for the commuters:
i. Inter-modal Transfer Space
Adequate space is needed at the ground
for interchange facilities around bus
stops and metro stations for smooth
transfer of commuters from bus to metro.
The additional space is also required for
parking, waiting areas and feeder
modes.
ii.
Weather protected Transit Shelter
A well designed and weather protected transit
shelters at stops, stations, transfer points, etc
are required.

iii. Pedestrian Facilities


The various pedestrian facilities such as crossings, sub ways, sky walks,
ramps,
footpaths, side walks etc are required for better accessibility to bus
shelters/metro stations with comfort and safety.

iv. Parking Facilities


Parking facilities (on-street/off
street) for both personalized
vehicles and non-motorized
transport are required.
Sufficient spaces for walk able
pedestrians are also desirable
AHMEDABAD BRTS

v. Displays and Real Time Information


Infrastructure information such as
- All stops/stations with seating areas/waiting areas,
- Smart stops/interchanges showing real time information,
- Fully illuminated Interchange displays units
- Updated website, etc are more important to integrate both metro and
bus
services with increase patronage and improved services.

Pedestria
ns

Bicycles

Public
Transport

Green Transportation
Hierarchy
Taxi
s

Single Occupant
Vehicles

Multiple Occupant
Vehicles

In recent years transportation


planning has become more multimodal and comprehensive,
considering a wider range of options
and impacts. Transport planners have
started to apply Level-of-Service
ratings to walking, cycling and public
transit, and to consider demand
management strategies as
alternatives to roadway capacity
expansion.
Some urban areas have established a
transportation hierarchy which states
that more resource efficient modes
will be given priority over single
occupant automobile travel,
particularly on congested urban
corridors. This provides a basis for
shifting emphasis in transport
planning, road space allocation,
funding and pricing to favour more

REFERENCES & BIBLIOGRAPHY


The National Mass Transit and Training Research Institute (NMTTRI) in Mumbai,
Florida Department of Transportation. Multimodal Transportation Districts and Multimodal
Area wide Quality of Service Handbook. November 2003.
Todd Litman (2012), Toward More Comprehensive and Multi-modal Transport Evaluation, VTPI
(www.vtpi.org); at www.vtpi.org/comp_evaluation.pdf .
BCMoT (2008), 2008/092010/11 Service Plan, British Columbia Ministry of Transportation
(www.gov.bc.ca/tran); at www.bcbudget.gov.bc.ca/Annual_Reports/2007_2008/trans/trans.pdf.

THANK YOU