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TIMECEL RF OPTIMIZATION

WORKSHOP #2
08 December, 2001

TRAFFIC ENGINEERING

NOKIA

RF Optimization Workshop #2: Dec 08, 2001 page: 1

OBJECTIVE

This presentation does not aim to provide detailed theoretical information


about traffic engineering, but rather the practical aspects in applying it to
an RF network.
At the end of the course, you should be able to:
Understand the difference between design congestion and blocking
Understand what is carried traffic, actual offered traffic and design offered
traffic.
Know how to utilize Erlang theories to dimension capacity

NOKIA

RF Optimization Workshop #2: Dec 08, 2001 page: 2

CONGESTION AND BLOCKING

There are two types of congestion


Call congestion
Time congestion

When an element is congested (i.e. no more resources are available),


then blocking usually occurs.
Blocking can basically be due to:

Design congestion
System

Outage
System

availability is at full designed capacity and is congested.


availability is NOT at designed capacity and is congested.

Dimensioning should be based on Design Congestion, not just purely on


Blocking.

NOKIA

RF Optimization Workshop #2: Dec 08, 2001 page: 3

ERLANG MODEL

Traffic in a network element can be measured in Erlangs.


Erlang is a dimensionless unit named after its Danish creator, A.K. Erlang
(1878 1929).
It is used to describe the total traffic volume of one hour. These traffic
measurements are important as it enables the traffic engineer to
determine the traffic pattern and growth forecast of the network.
It is also used to dimension the appropriate number of channels required
to support a certain amount of estimated offered traffic at a particular
GOS.
GOS stands for Grade Of Service and represents the probability of
blocking.

NOKIA

RF Optimization Workshop #2: Dec 08, 2001 page: 4

ERLANG MODEL

1 Erlang is equivalent to 1 circuit busy for 1 hour


Erlang can also be calculated as:

n* A
Erl
3600

Where n = number of calls


A = mean holding time

For example, if a subscriber makes 2 calls during busy hour lasting for 60
seconds, then the usage is: 2*60/3600 = 33.3 mErlangs

NOKIA

RF Optimization Workshop #2: Dec 08, 2001 page: 5

ERLANG MODEL

There are 2 basic models for Erlang

Erlang B

Erlang C

NOKIA

Most commonly used, and adopted by TimeCel as well. Assumption is that blocked calls are
immediately cleared and call arrivals are random (Poisson). Good if overflow facilities are
present.
Assumption is blocked calls are queued until they can be attended to.

RF Optimization Workshop #2: Dec 08, 2001 page: 6

ERLANG MODEL

OFFERED = CARRIED + BLOCKED


OFFERED
TRAFFIC

CARRIED
TRAFFIC
N channels
BLOCKED
TRAFFIC

Normally, when dimensioning, a standard GOS objective is chosen first. For


BTS, this is typically 2%.
Carried Traffic CANNOT be more than number of channels available!!

NOKIA

RF Optimization Workshop #2: Dec 08, 2001 page: 7

ERLANG MODEL

Referring to the Erlang B table (for 2% GOS):

This means that to achieve 2% GOS or better (i.e. <2%), the threshold
traffic is 2.9E. In other words, if actual offered traffic is > 2.9E, GOS
objective would not be met (i.e. > 2%)

NOKIA

RF Optimization Workshop #2: Dec 08, 2001 page: 8

ERLANG MODEL

Example of 2% GOS:

2.9E

7 channels

2.88E

0.06E

This means if subscribers offer us EXACTLY the design offered traffic, we


would lose 0.06E (2%) while carrying 2.88E.

NOKIA

RF Optimization Workshop #2: Dec 08, 2001 page: 9

T/E

T/E is an indication of design


congestion, where
T= Actual Offered traffic
E = Design Offered traffic

T/E of 100% means the cell is


theoretically at the design GOS, and
therefore congested according to
dimensioning standards.
As this is a dimensioning tool, the
offered traffic should be based on
design capacity. This will eliminate
the outage events.

NOKIA

RF Optimization Workshop #2: Dec 08, 2001 page: 10

EXAMPLES

STEPS:
1. First, convert Carried Traffic to Actual Offered Traffic
2. Calculate Design Offered Traffic
3. Calculate T/E (%)
4. If T/E is more than 100%, cell is congested. You can also use warning/alert figures
(e.g. 90% T/E)
5. Calculate how many circuits needed to support the actual offered traffic.
Note that when the carried traffic comes too close to the number of channels, Erlang theory blows
up!
NOKIA

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