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# TIMECEL RF OPTIMIZATION

WORKSHOP #2
08 December, 2001

TRAFFIC ENGINEERING

NOKIA

OBJECTIVE

## This presentation does not aim to provide detailed theoretical information

about traffic engineering, but rather the practical aspects in applying it to
an RF network.
At the end of the course, you should be able to:
Understand the difference between design congestion and blocking
Understand what is carried traffic, actual offered traffic and design offered
traffic.
Know how to utilize Erlang theories to dimension capacity

NOKIA

Call congestion
Time congestion

## When an element is congested (i.e. no more resources are available),

then blocking usually occurs.
Blocking can basically be due to:

Design congestion
System

Outage
System

## availability is at full designed capacity and is congested.

availability is NOT at designed capacity and is congested.

Blocking.

NOKIA

ERLANG MODEL

## Traffic in a network element can be measured in Erlangs.

Erlang is a dimensionless unit named after its Danish creator, A.K. Erlang
(1878 1929).
It is used to describe the total traffic volume of one hour. These traffic
measurements are important as it enables the traffic engineer to
determine the traffic pattern and growth forecast of the network.
It is also used to dimension the appropriate number of channels required
to support a certain amount of estimated offered traffic at a particular
GOS.
GOS stands for Grade Of Service and represents the probability of
blocking.

NOKIA

ERLANG MODEL

## 1 Erlang is equivalent to 1 circuit busy for 1 hour

Erlang can also be calculated as:

n* A
Erl
3600

## Where n = number of calls

A = mean holding time

For example, if a subscriber makes 2 calls during busy hour lasting for 60
seconds, then the usage is: 2*60/3600 = 33.3 mErlangs

NOKIA

ERLANG MODEL

## There are 2 basic models for Erlang

Erlang B

Erlang C

NOKIA

Most commonly used, and adopted by TimeCel as well. Assumption is that blocked calls are
immediately cleared and call arrivals are random (Poisson). Good if overflow facilities are
present.
Assumption is blocked calls are queued until they can be attended to.

ERLANG MODEL

OFFERED
TRAFFIC

CARRIED
TRAFFIC
N channels
BLOCKED
TRAFFIC

## Normally, when dimensioning, a standard GOS objective is chosen first. For

BTS, this is typically 2%.
Carried Traffic CANNOT be more than number of channels available!!

NOKIA

ERLANG MODEL

## Referring to the Erlang B table (for 2% GOS):

This means that to achieve 2% GOS or better (i.e. <2%), the threshold
traffic is 2.9E. In other words, if actual offered traffic is > 2.9E, GOS
objective would not be met (i.e. > 2%)

NOKIA

## RF Optimization Workshop #2: Dec 08, 2001 page: 8

ERLANG MODEL

Example of 2% GOS:

2.9E

7 channels

2.88E

0.06E

## This means if subscribers offer us EXACTLY the design offered traffic, we

would lose 0.06E (2%) while carrying 2.88E.

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T/E

## T/E is an indication of design

congestion, where
T= Actual Offered traffic
E = Design Offered traffic

## T/E of 100% means the cell is

theoretically at the design GOS, and
therefore congested according to
dimensioning standards.
As this is a dimensioning tool, the
offered traffic should be based on
design capacity. This will eliminate
the outage events.

NOKIA

## RF Optimization Workshop #2: Dec 08, 2001 page: 10

EXAMPLES

STEPS:
1. First, convert Carried Traffic to Actual Offered Traffic
2. Calculate Design Offered Traffic
3. Calculate T/E (%)
4. If T/E is more than 100%, cell is congested. You can also use warning/alert figures
(e.g. 90% T/E)
5. Calculate how many circuits needed to support the actual offered traffic.
Note that when the carried traffic comes too close to the number of channels, Erlang theory blows
up!
NOKIA