# Chapter 11

The Mole

Sec. 11.1

Measuring Matter

The Mole (mol): SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance.

1 mole = 6.02 x 10²³ 10²³ representative particles such as atoms, molecules, formula units, electrons, or ions.

One mole of anything has 6.02 x 10²³ 10²³ number of representative particles!

Avogadro s Number:

6.02 x 10²³ 10²³ 602 000 000 000 000 000 000 000

Because

Avogadro s number is so enormous, it is used to count extremely small particles!

Converting moles to particles:

If one mole of copper contains 6.02 x 10²³ 10²³ copper atoms, then how many copper atoms does two moles of copper contain?

Answer: 2 x (6.02 x 10²³) = ? 10²³) Copper atoms

Complete practice problems p. 311

Converting particles to moles:

Question: If one mole of iron contains 6.02 x 10²³, 10²³, how many moles of iron contain 2.50 x 1020 contain?

Answer: 2.50 x 10 ²º/ 6.02 x 10²³ =?

Complete practice problems p. 312

Sec 11.2

Mass and the Mole

Would a dozen limes have the same mass as a dozen eggs?

No, because they have different size and composition.

Would the mass of one mole of copper differ from the mass of one mole of carbon?

Yes, because carbon atoms differ from copper atoms.

Molar Mass:

The mass in grams of one mole of any pure substance.

The molar mass of any element is numerically equal to its atomic mass and has the units g/mol

What is the atomic mass of manganese?

54.94amu

What is the molar mass of manganese?

54.94 g/mol

**What is the molar mass of:
**

Carbon= Zinc= Calcium= Iron=

**Using molar mass:
**

Mole=mass (g)/molar mass (g/mol)

Calculate the mass in grams of 0.0450 moles of chromium.

By rearranging the previous equation: Mass=mole x molar mass

0.0450 mol Cr x 52.00g/mol Cr= 2.34g Cr

How many moles of calcium are there in 525g calcium?

mole= mass/molar mass 525g/40.08g/mol= 13.1mol Ca

Complete practice problems p.316 (11 and 12).

Conversion from mass to atoms:

How many atoms of gold (Au) are in a pure gold nugget having a mass of 25.0g?

First, find the number of moles.

mol= mass/molar mass mol= 25.0g/196.97g/mol= 0.127mol Au

Next, find the number of particles in 0.127 mol of Au using Avogadro s #

0.127 x 6.02 x 10²³ 10²³ = 7.65 x 10²² atoms Au

complete practice problems p. 318 (13).

Converting atoms to mass: A party balloon contains 5.50 x 10²² 10²² atoms of helium gas. What is the mass in grams of the helium?

First, find the number of moles:

Mol=5.5 x 10²²/6.02 10²²/6.02 x 10²³=0.0914 mol He

Next, find the mass in grams:

mass=mol x molar mass 0.0914mol x 4.00g/mol= 0.366g He

Complete practice problems p. 318 (14).

Draw the diagram of conversions on p. 319

Sec 11.3

Moles of Compounds

Freon CCl2F2 contains one atom of carbon, two atoms of chlorine and two atoms of fluorine. The ratio is 1:2:2

Freon

Suppose you have one mole of freon:

The you would have Avogadro s number of freon molecules.

One

mole of freon would have one mole of carbon atoms, two moles of chlorine atoms and two moles of fluorine atoms.

Determine the moles of aluminum ions (Al+3)in 1.25 moles of Al2O3 1 mole Al2O3 contains 2 mol Al+3 ions, therefore 1.25 mol contains 1.25 x 2 = 2.5 mol Al+3

Complete practice problems p. 321.

The Molar Mass of Compounds:

The sum of the masses of every particle that makes up the compound.

Determine the molar mass of K2CrO4

(2 x 39.10) + 52.00 + (4 x 16.00) = 194.20g/mol

Complete practice problems p. 322

**Converting moles of a compound to mass:
**

First,

find the molar

mass. Next, multiply molar mass x moles to get the mass.

What is the mass of 2.5 moles of allyl sulfide (C3H5)2S?

Molar

mass = (6x12.01) + (10x1.008) + (1x32.07)= 114.21g/mol Mass = 2.5 x 114.21= 286g

Complete practice problems p. 323.

Converting the mass of a compound to moles:

**find the molar mass. Next, find the mol by dividing mass/molar mass
**

First

Calculate the number of moles in calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 in 325g

Molar

mass= (1x40.08) + (2x16.00) + (2x1.008)= 74.096g/mol mol = 325/74.096= 4.39mol

Complete practice problems p. 324 (30).

Converting the mass of a compound to number of particles:

**find the molar mass. Next, divide mass by molar mass to find mol.
**

First

Then,

multiply by Avogadro s number to find the number of particles. Use the ratio of each particle from the formula to find the number of each particle.

A sample of aluminum chloride AlCl3 has a mass of 35.6g. a. How many Al+3 ? b. How many Cl1-? c. What is the mass in grams of one formula unit of aluminum chloride?

Molar

mass = (1x26.98) + (3x35.45) = 133.33g/mol Mass/molar mass=mol 35.6/133.33= 0.267mol Mol x Avogadro s #= number of particles.

0.267

x 6.02 x 10²³= 10²³= 1.61 x 10²³ formula units AlCl3 Number of Al+3= 1 x 1.61 x 10²³= 1.61 x 10²³ Al+3 Number of Cl1-= 3 x 1.61 x 10²³ = 4.83 x 10²³ Cl1-

To

calculate the mass of one formula unit, divide the molar mass by Avogadro s # 133.33/6.02 x 10²³ = 133.33/ 10²³ 2.21 x 10 ²²g ²²g AlCl3/formula unit

Complete practice problems p. 326

Copy diagram on p. 327.

Sec 11.4 Empirical and Molecular Formulas

Percent Composition: The percent by mass of each element in a compound.

If a 100g sample of a compound contains 55g of element x and 45g of element y,

Use the equation: equation: percent by mass= mass of element/mass of compound x100

**element x: 55g/100gx100=55% For element y: 45g/100gx100=45%
**

For

Percent

composition can be determined from the chemical formula.

H2O

find the molar mass of water: (2x1.01)+(1x16)= 18.02g/mol

First

the molar mass as the mass of the compound water. Next, divide the molar mass of hydrogen (element) over the molar mass of water (compound) x100

Use

2.02g/18.02gx100= 02g/18.02gx100= =11.2% H 11. Do the same with oxygen: 16g/18.02gx100= 16g/18.02gx100= 88.80% 88.80% O

Percent

compositions add up to 100

Complete

practice problems p. 331.

**Empirical Formula for a Compound:
**

The

formula with the smallest wholewholenumber mole ratio of the elements.

The

empirical formula for hydrogen peroxide is HO The molecular formula is H2O2 In both formulas, the ratio of O to H is 1:1

**Finding empirical formula:
**

find the number of moles for each element: mol=mass/molar mass Then change ratios to whole numbers by dividing by the lowest number of moles.

First,

The

percent composition of an oxide of sulfur is 40.05% S and 59.95% O 100g of the oxide contains 40.05 g S and 59.95g O

the mol for each: 40.05g/32.07g/mol= 1.249 mol S 59.95g/16g/mol= 3.747 mol O

Find

Change

to whole numbers by dividing both by 1.249 1.249/1.249=1 mol 3.747/1.249=3 mol The simplest whole number ratio of S to O is 1:3, the empirical formula is SO3

Complete

practice problems p. 333

Molecular formula:

The

actual number of atoms of each element in one molecule or formula unit of a substance.

To find the molecular formula:

First, find the number of moles for each element. Next, find the simplest ratio by dividing number of moles of each element by smallest #

**simplest ratio is the empirical formula. formula. Find the molar mass of the empirical formula.
**

The

Divide

the experimentally determined molar mass by the molar mass of the empirical formula. This is n

Multiply the subscripts in the empirical formula by n to determine the molecular formula.

Molecular

formula = (empirical formula) n

Complete

practice problems p. 335 and 337

Write

the diagram on p. 337