PREPARED BY

Priyanka Gupta Shreya Bhatnagar Shampa Srivastava III EE

SUBMITTED TO
Mr. Jameel Ahamad Seminar In-Charge EE Deptt.

y A smart grid delivers electricity from suppliers

to consumers using two-way digital technology to control appliances at consumers' homes to save energy, reduce cost and increase reliability and transparency.

y Self healing y Empower and incorporate the consumer y Tolerant of attack y Provides power quality needed by 21st century

consumers y Accommodates a wide variety of generation options (like green energy) y Fully enables maturing electricity markets y Optimizes assets 

VARIABLE TARIFF-BASED LOAD
y variable price profile given to the customer day ahead y different price profile for each day y automatic home management device coupled to an

energy meter 
ENERGY USAGE MONITORING AND FEEDBACK
y display of energy consumption y comparisons to average consumption pattern y suggestions on how to further lower consumption 

REAL-TIME PORTFOLIO IMBALANCE

REDUCTION
y Balance Responsible Party (BRP) which plan or

forecast the energy production and consumption y Imbalance cost for the BRPs on deviation from the energy plan 
OFFERING RESERVE CAPACITY TO THE TSO
y Energy generated by consumers sold back to the grid 

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONGESTION

MANAGEMENT
y loads shifted away from periods at which congestion

occurs y usage data provided by the consumers proves to be very helpful 
DISTRIBUTION GRID CELL ISLANDING IN CASE

OF HIGHER- SYSTEM INSTABILITY
y instable system operated separately y transition to island mode automatic 

BLACK START SUPPORT FROM SMART HOUSES
y after black-out local grid is out of operation y start-up quickly in island mode y then reconnect with up-stream network 

INTEGRATION OF FORECASTING TECHNIQUES
y forecasting a necessary tool due to volatility of

production level of distributed generators y lowest forecasting error means most efficient operation

y Independent processors in each component at each

sub-station and power plant y Sensors are connected to all other components in the system y Own state and of all other components are known and communicated

On addition of new devices to the system device parameters are automatically updated The new component also has a built-in processor

TYPICAL BLACK-OUT SEQUENCE y a sudden outage of major lines occurs y further outage due to overload leaves the system imbalanced y frequency declines with large generation load imbalance y generation is taken off-line y island blacks out y long time taken to restore power

‡ emergency imposed on the system ‡ frequency & load/generation imbalance is determined and total outage is prevented

Distribution system needs many changes to come in sync with requirements for the implementation of smart grid DESIRED OPTIMISATIONS DEMAND OPTIMISATION DELIVERY OPTIMIZATION ASSET OPTIMIZATION RENEWABLES OPTIMIZATION

y y y y

y Refers to monitoring, control & communication

functions y Important aspects of DA are in areas of protection and switching y Helps in quickly reconfigure interconnected network of feeders

Can detect fault current and voltages

Can help in self-healing of the grid

Can communicate with one another

DISTRIBUTED ASSET OPTIMIZATION MODEL
y Developed to provide an engineering basis for

predicting hourly loading at any point between the sub-station & customer y Calculates power flowing through each transformer y Provides insights required to make better planning and operating decisions 

DATA COLLECTION

DATA INCLUDES
y Customer information & billing data y Customer hourly consumption data y Distribution transformer characteristics y Feeder characteristics y Connectivity data for the distribution system

DATA VALIDATION
y Total annual customer energy validated with annual

energy measured at the sub-station

ESTABLISH WEATHER SENSITIVITY
y Data obtained is weather-sensitive y Tuned with the weather parameters to obtain the

actual data

y Data obtained from users matched with Load-Shape

library y Customers assigned best matching hourly or daily load-shape

CALIBRATION
y To compensate for unaccounted energy calibration

process applied

y Residential, Small Office & commercial building

sector responsible for over 50% of total electricity consumption y Homes, offices and commercial buildings treated as an interconnected network instead of single units y Able to communicate, interact & negotiate with both customers & energy devices in local grid y Grid operated more efficiently as consumption is better predicted

SMART HOME NETWORK 

MICROGENERATION
y Small homes can generate wind and solar power which if

in surplus amount can be sold back to the distributor 
SMART METERS
y With their help user consumption can be measured,

monitored and controlled y Smarter decisions made by consumers can be communicated back to grid 
LOCAL STORAGE UNITS
y Enables smart homes to store energy for future use

y Introduces a holistic concept & technology for

smart homes y Smart homes & buildings treated as proactive consumers also known as prosumers y Prosumers negotiate & collaborate as an intelligent network

y A communication technique to automatically

collect the meter readings & other relevant data from meters y AMR has benefits beyond meter reading y It provides crucial data on an insight into other areas of operation

y For small commercial customers monthly

consumption read is sufficient y For large commercial and industrial customers daily consumption read is required y Remote monitoring devices attached to meters store hourly consumption profile y Accurate bills provided to customers are more satisfying than estimated bills 

RF COMMUNICATION
y Most widely accepted method of communication

between meter and data collection y A wake-up signal is sent by data collection system to the RF devices y Devices send back the latest meter read & other information 

RADIO-EQUIPPED HAND-HELD COMPUTER  DRIVE-BY OR MOBILE DATA COLLECTION  FIXED NETWORK DATA COLLECTION

y Meter reader carrying a hand-held computer equipped

with radio receiver walks-by homes, without actually entering the premises
y Manual error reduced

y Radio transreciever installed in a utility vehicle y Root information downloaded from the utility billing

system y Loaded into radio transreciever y Vehicle drives along the route and collects the readings through RF communication

y Fixed network installed over saturated areas where

advanced metering data, variable reads, unscheduled reads required
y Used where daily reading or reading several times a

day is required 

INBOUND SYSTEMS

y Modules call a central master data collection

computer at pre-scheduled time y Provides hourly consumption data 
OUTBOUND SYSTEMS

y Master station calls the remote meter module to

collect data

y Usage reporting device at each customer

site is called a SMART METER
y Computerised replacement of electrical

meters
y Contains a processor, non-volatile storage &

communication facilities y Can track usage as a function of time-of-day, disconnect a customer via a software or send out alarms in case of problems y Interface directly with smart appliances to control them

Necessary to support major applications & systems such as demand response, wide area measurement & control, electricity storage & transportation.

TRUST
y Necessary to know whether appropriate user is

accessing accurate data created by right device at proper time y And the data hasn t been modified

y Data transfer now taking place through digital

medium like internet y Chances of data theft and modification very high y Hackers can immediately manipulate their energy costs or fabricate false readings

PRIVACY
y Electricity use pattern could lead to disclosure of

when people are at home or work or travelling y This could support criminal targeting of homes

y Most effective solution for securing smart grid

based on PKI technologies

PKI TECHNICAL ELEMENTS y PKI standards y Smart Grid PKI tools y Device Attestation

PKI STANDARDS y Provide a mechanism for defining naming convention and certificate policy y They don t specify how these standards should be used y They only provide a high-level framework for digital certificate usage and for implementing a PKI PKI TOOLS y They tell how to work on the PKI standards y Ease the management of PKI components in the Smart Grid application

DEVICE ATTESTATION
y Device attestation certificates are used only to

assert the device manufacturer, model, serial no. and that the device has not been tampered with

y Renewable resources affect the reliability of grid due to

their volatility y Demand response and electric storage provide economics of grid y Grid reliability can be improved by mitigating peak demand and load variability

Reliability problem arises due to faults occurring in the system FUNCTIONS THAT RESOLVE THESE PROBLEMS y Fault diagnosis and alarm processing function y Fault location function y Service restoration function

FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND ALARM PROCESSING FUNCTION Automatically triggered after occurrence of a fault Also detect missing remote control signal Analysis of the fault presented to the operator FAULT LOCATION FUNCTION To find the location of faults Quickly determine the faulty section of feeder SERVICE RESTORATION FUNCTION Restores the power to the non-faulted section of the feeder

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