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Basic

Trigonometry

Parts of a Right Triangle


B

Hypotenuse

Opposite Side

A
Adjacent Side

The hypotenuse will always be the


longest side, and opposite from the
right angle.

The adjacent side is the side next


to Angle A.

Imagine that you are at Angle A looking


into the triangle.

The opposite side is the side that is


on the opposite side of the triangle
from Angle A.

Parts of a Right Triangle


B

Hypotenuse

Opposite Side

A
Adjacent Side

Now imagine that you move from


Angle A to Angle B.

From Angle B the adjacent side is


the side next to Angle B.

From Angle B the opposite side is


the side that is on the opposite side
of the triangle.

Review
For Angle A
Hypotenuse

This is the Opposite Side

Opposite Side
Opposite Side

This is the Adjacent Side

Adjacent
Adjacent Side
Side

For Angle B

B
Hypotenuse

This is the Opposite Side


This is the Adjacent Side

Trig Ratios
Use Angle B to name the sides
Using Angle A to name the sides
We can use the lengths of the sides of a
right triangle to form ratios. There are 3
different ratios that we can make.

B
Opposite

Hypotenuse

C Adjacent

The ratios are still the same as before!!

Opposite
Hypotenuse
Adjacent
Hypotenuse
Opposite
Adjacent

Trig Ratios

Each of the 3 ratios has a name


The names also refer to an angle

Sine of Angle A =

Opposite
Hypotenuse

Cosine of Angle A =

Adjacent
Hypotenuse

Opposite
Tangent of Angle A =
Adjacent

Hypotenuse
Opposite
Adjacent

Trig Ratios
B

If the angle changes from A to B


The way the ratios are made is the
same

Sine of Angle B =

Opposite
Hypotenuse

Cosine of Angle B =

Adjacent
Hypotenuse

Tangent of Angle B =

Opposite
Adjacent

Hypotenuse
Opposite
Adjacent

SOHCAHTOA
B
Here is a way to remember how
to make the 3 basic Trig Ratios

Hypotenuse
Opposite
Adjacent

1) Identify the Opposite and Adjacent


sides for the appropriate angle

2) SOHCAHTOA is pronounced Sew Caw Toe A and it means


Sin is Opposite over Hypotenuse, Cos is Adjacent over Hypotenuse,
and Tan is Opposite over Adjacent
Put the underlined letters to make
SOH-CAH-TOA

Examples of Trig Ratios


First we will find the Sine, Cosine and
Tangent ratios for Angle P.
Next we will find the Sine, Cosine, and
Tangent ratios for Angle Q

P
12
Adjacent

16
Opposite

Remember SohCahToa

16
20

Sin P

Cos P

12

20

Tan P

16

12

20

Sin Q

12
20

Cos Q

16
20

Tan Q

12
16

Similar Triangles and Trig Ratios


P
B

20

12

3
Q

16

VABC VQPR
They are similar triangles, since
ratios of corresponding sides are
the same
Lets look at the 3 basic Trig
ratios for these 2 triangles

Sin Q

12
20

Cos Q

16
20

Tan Q

12
16

A
4

Sin A

3
5

Cos A

4
5

Tan A

3
4

Notice that these ratios are equivalent!!

Similar Triangles and Trig Ratios


Triangles are similar if the ratios of the
lengths of the corresponding side are the
same.
Triangles are similar if they have the same
angles
All similar triangles have the same trig
ratios for corresponding angles