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Basic

Trigonometry

B

Hypotenuse

Opposite Side

A

The hypotenuse will always be the

longest side, and opposite from the
right angle.

to Angle A.

Imagine that you are at Angle A looking

into the triangle.

The opposite side is the side that is

on the opposite side of the triangle
from Angle A.

B

Hypotenuse

Opposite Side

A

Now imagine that you move from

Angle A to Angle B.

From Angle B the adjacent side is

the side next to Angle B.

From Angle B the opposite side is

the side that is on the opposite side
of the triangle.

Review
For Angle A
Hypotenuse

Opposite Side
Opposite Side

Side

For Angle B

B
Hypotenuse

This is the Opposite Side

Trig Ratios
Use Angle B to name the sides
Using Angle A to name the sides
We can use the lengths of the sides of a
right triangle to form ratios. There are 3
different ratios that we can make.

B
Opposite

Hypotenuse

Opposite
Hypotenuse
Hypotenuse
Opposite

Trig Ratios

Each of the 3 ratios has a name

The names also refer to an angle

Sine of Angle A =

Opposite
Hypotenuse

Cosine of Angle A =

Hypotenuse

Opposite
Tangent of Angle A =

Hypotenuse
Opposite

Trig Ratios
B

If the angle changes from A to B

The way the ratios are made is the
same

Sine of Angle B =

Opposite
Hypotenuse

Cosine of Angle B =

Hypotenuse

Tangent of Angle B =

Opposite

Hypotenuse
Opposite

SOHCAHTOA
B
Here is a way to remember how
to make the 3 basic Trig Ratios

Hypotenuse
Opposite

1) Identify the Opposite and Adjacent

sides for the appropriate angle

2) SOHCAHTOA is pronounced Sew Caw Toe A and it means

Sin is Opposite over Hypotenuse, Cos is Adjacent over Hypotenuse,
and Tan is Opposite over Adjacent
Put the underlined letters to make
SOH-CAH-TOA

Examples of Trig Ratios

First we will find the Sine, Cosine and
Tangent ratios for Angle P.
Next we will find the Sine, Cosine, and
Tangent ratios for Angle Q

P
12

16
Opposite

Remember SohCahToa

16
20

Sin P

Cos P

12

20

Tan P

16

12

20

Sin Q

12
20

Cos Q

16
20

Tan Q

12
16

Similar Triangles and Trig Ratios

P
B

20

12

3
Q

16

VABC VQPR
They are similar triangles, since
ratios of corresponding sides are
the same
Lets look at the 3 basic Trig
ratios for these 2 triangles

Sin Q

12
20

Cos Q

16
20

Tan Q

12
16

A
4

Sin A

3
5

Cos A

4
5

Tan A

3
4

Similar Triangles and Trig Ratios

Triangles are similar if the ratios of the
lengths of the corresponding side are the
same.
Triangles are similar if they have the same
angles
All similar triangles have the same trig
ratios for corresponding angles